CCOG for OMT 163 archive revision 201502

You are viewing an old version of the CCOG. View current version »

Effective Term:
Spring 2015 through Summer 2017

Course Number:
OMT 163
Course Title:
Ocular Anatomy and Physiology
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Introduces the structure and function of the human visual system. Covers the anatomy and physiology of the eyeball, orbit, and ocular adnexa with an emphasis on ocular terminology. Audit available.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon completion of this course students should be able to:

1. Identify and describe the structures and functions of the visual system.

2. Describe the physiology and development of the visual system.  

Course Activities and Design

The material in this course will be presented in lecture format. Other educationally sound methods may be employed such as discussion, recitation, research papers and small group work. Guest speakers and field trips may be utilized by the instructor as a means of assisting the student in mastering competency.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

At the beginning of the course, the instructor will detail the methods used to evaluate student progress and the criteria for assigning a course grade. The methods may include one or more of the following tools: examinations, quizzes, homework assignments, research papers.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Visual System

  1. Define the anatomical directions/planes of the body
  2. Name three coats of the eye
  3. List the three chambers of the eye
  4. List the structures found within each chamber
  5. Locate and describe the iris, ciliary body and choroid
  6. Detail the diameter of eye between anterior and posterior poles in inches and millimeters.
  7. Describe location of the equator of the globe
  8. Locate and describe the function of the optic nerve

Cornea and Sclera

  1. Describe dimension of normal cornea
  2. Describe “with the rule”,  “against the rule” and “oblique” corneal astigmatism
  3. Corneal thickness both central and peripheral
  4. Name layers of the cornea and it’s regenerative properties
  5. Types of cells in the epithelium
  6. Source of oxygen and nutrition of endothelium
  7. Normal corneal sensitivity
  8. Vascular state of normal cornea
  9. Sources of oxygen and oxygen requirements
  10. Average front surface power of cornea in diopters and millimeters of radius
  11. State refractive index of cornea
  12. Limbus and limbal blood supply
  13. Average width of corneal sclera limbus
  14. Function of sclera and lamina cribrosa


  1. Locate and describe the iris, ciliary body and choroid
  2. Define melanin vs. iris color
  3. Describe the ciliary process and formation of aqueous humor
  4. Describe the major components of the ciliary body
  5. Describe the location and action of dilator and sphincter muscles, suspensory ligaments and layers of the crystalline lens.
  6. Describe direct and consensual light reflex
  7. Describe two major functions of the choroid


  1. Locate retina and describe it's general function
  2. Locate and describe the optic nerve, macular lutea, fovea centralis, and central retinal artery and ora serrata
  3. Describe visual pathway from retina to occipital cortex
  4. Locate and describe function of the chiasm
  5. List the ten layers of the retina
  6. Locate and describe general function of pigment epithelium
  7. Locate and describe the functions of rods and cones
  8. Describe photopic and scotopic vision and which photoreceptors are responsible for each
  9. Define and locate visual axis of the globe


  1. Define amplitude of accommodation and how it changes with age
  2. Locate and describe ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and layers of crystalline lens
  3. Describe sequence of events that enable accommodation of the lens
  4. Describe the lens nucleus, cortex and capsule
  5. Define cataract

Aqueous and Vitreous

1.      Aqueous humor dynamics

2.      Describe aqueous humor drainage system

3.      Locate and describe aqueous drainage system including: "angle", trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal

4.      Describe normal intraocular pressure and define tonometry

5.      Describe normal vitreous attachments

6.       List functions of the vitreous

A.    Ocular embryology

7.      Primary germ layers during development of the eye tissues

8.      Define coloboma

9.      Describe the hyaloid arterial system and its purpose during development of the eye

Skull & Orbit

1.      Locate & describe the shape and function of the orbit

2.       Identify the seven bones of the orbit

3.      Identify the three openings into the orbit from the cranial vault

4.      List the vessels that pass through each of these openings from the cranial

5.      List and locate the four sets of para-nasal sinuses that surround the orbit

6.      List and locate the four sets of para-nasal sinuses that surround the orbit

7.      Locate and describe Tenon’s Capsule

Ocular Adnexa/Lacrimal System

  1. Locate and describe geographical landmarks as related to upper and lower eyelids including canthi and palpebral fissures
  2. Describe general function of eyelids
  3. List muscles of the eyelids and their function
  4. Define “palpebral fissure”
  5. List the pre-corneal tear films
  6. Locate lacrimal glands, Meibomian glands, Goblet cells and describe the purpose of fluids secreted by each
  7. Locate and describe the collection system for tear film including puncta, cannaliculi and lacrimal sac
  8. Define and explain role of enzyme lysozyme
  9. Name and locate bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and fornix
  10. Describe conjunctival tissues
  11. Locate and describe the function of the cilia and brows
  12. Describe normal pH of tear chemistry

Extraocular Muscles

1.      Locate origination of ocular muscles in orbit.

2.      Six muscles responsible for ocular movements.

3.      Locate the origination and insertion points of ocular muscles to the globe

4.      Locate and describe trochlea

5.      Adduction and abduction, elevation and depression, intortion and extortion

Blood Supply and Nerve Innervation

1.      Describe the location of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein.

2.      Describe the location of vortex veins.

3.      List the cranial nerves which innervate the eye, extraocular muscles or eyelids.

4.      Define efferent vs. afferent.

The Visual Pathway

1.      Describe visual pathway from retina to occipital cortex.

2.      Locate and describe function of the chiasm.

3.      Describe how the location of lesions within the retina affect the image in the visual field.

4.      Describe three characteristic defects of the visual field caused by damage in the visual pathway.