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CCOG for MT 104 archive revision 104

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Effective Term:
Summer 2014 through Spring 2024
Course Number:
MT 104
Course Title:
Introduction to Solar Voltaic Processing
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Introduces the methods used to manufacture silicon solar cells. Traces cell processing from raw material to a finished product using planar technology. Introduces the processes and equipment used to create pure single crystal silicon wafers and the processes used to form the solar devices on top of these substrates. Audit available.

Addendum to Course Description

This is the third course in a three course set: MT 101, MT 102, and MT104. The set is required for graduation with an AAS degree in Microelectronics Technology with the Solar Voltaic Manufacturing option and the Certificate of Completion in Solar Voltaic Manufacturing..

Includes the following manufacturing processes:, crystal growth, ingot shaping and wafering, oxidation, lithography, etch, deposition, diffusion doping, test and sort.

This course may be offered in an on-campus format or in a distance learning format on the world-wide-web.

Intended Outcomes for the course

  • Describe the single crystal wafer substrate formation sequence and the processes involved with industry professionals.
  • Describe basic construction sequences of solar cells, and the processes used in their manufacture, with industry professionals.
  • Use developed abilities and habits in the information methods of the industry to communicate and find information on: business news, processes, advances, technical data, etc.

Course Activities and Design

Course activities will include a variety of learning activities, such as: instructor delivered lectures, demonstrations, and/or student discussions stressing key topics in the course. In preparation for the lecture portion of the course, students will be expected to complete all reading and problem/question homework assignments.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

Assessment of student performance in this course will consist of written examinations. Assessment may also include oral presentations, written reports, and other class projects.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

1.       Photovoltaic systems

1.1.    Cells, Modules, Arrays, Panels

1.2.    Collectors, Inverters, System integration

1.3.    Voltage/Current, AC/DC, Series/Parallel, Power

1.4.    Energy, Efficiency, Conversion, Solar Spectrum, Photons Usable Energy, Heat

2.       PV Devices

2.1.    Diodes (review), Biasing, Built-in Voltage

2.2.    Photoelectric Effect

2.3.    Drift and Diffusion Currents

2.4.    PV conversion (review)

3.       Manufacturing Flow

3.1.    Silicon: Sand – MGS – EGS – SGS

3.2.    Wafering: Crystal Growth – Ingot Shaping – Slicing – Surface Finish

3.3.    Cell Processing: Texture Etch – Junction Doping – Edge Isolation Etch – Passivation Oxidation – Anti-Reflective Coating Deposition – Metallization/Patterning – Testing

4.       Silicon Purification

4.1.    Making Metallurgical Grade Silicon from Sand

4.2.    Making Electronics or Solar Grade Silicon from MGS

4.2.1. TCS, Distillation, Siemens Process

5.       Crystal Growth

5.1.    Define: crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous.

5.2.    Define crystal orientation: Miller index and crystal plane.

5.3.    Describe the Czochralski method of growing crystals.

5.4.    Poly Casting

5.5.    Thinfilm formation

6.       Wafer Preparation

6.1.    Ingot shaping: sawing

6.2.    Slicing: wire saw

6.3.    Surface finish: lapping – etching - polishing

7.       Cell Processing

7.1.    Texture Etch

7.1.1. Concept of reflection and adsorption

7.1.2. Wet etch processing

7.1.3. Wet etch equipment

7.2.    Junction Doping

7.2.1. Diffusion processing and equipment              Concept of diffusion

7.2.2. Ion Implant processing and equipment

7.3.    Edge Isolation

7.3.1. Dry etching: processing and equipment

7.3.2. Laser etching: processing and equipment

7.4.    Passivation Oxidation

7.4.1. Oxidation reaction and diffusion

7.4.2. Processing and Equipment

7.5.    AntiReflective coating

7.5.1. Concept of reflection and wave interaction with thin films

7.5.2. CVD deposition: equipment and processing

7.5.3. PVD deposition: equipment and processing

7.6.    Metallization

7.6.1. Concept of metal contact formation to silicon

7.6.2. Contact to both poles of the diode

7.6.3. Screen Printing process and equipment

7.6.4. Deposition/Lithography/Etching process and equipment

7.7.    Firing

7.7.1. Concept of solder paste/etching/sintering

7.7.2. Process and equipment

7.8.    Testing

7.8.1. Process and equipment

7.8.2. Test parameters: V, I, P, efficiency

7.8.3. Sorting