CCOG for MLT 224 archive revision 202004

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Effective Term:
Fall 2020 through Summer 2024

Course Number:
MLT 224
Course Title:
Clinical Chemistry I
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Introduces theory, general laboratory principles, methodologies, instrumentation and practical concepts associated with testing procedures used in the clinical chemistry laboratory. Includes important characteristics and clinical significance of carbohydrates, proteins, enzymology, liver function, endocrinology, and cardiac markers. Audit available.

Addendum to Course Description

This course presents basic theory of commonly ordered tests in the clinical chemistry laboratory to include the physiological basis for the test, specimen type, tests principles, expected values, sources of error, limitations of the test and disease correlation.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Perform accurate analytical testing of basic chemistry analytes: glucose, enzymes, proteins, and hormones.
  • Report and interpret laboratory results and correlate data with disease states.
  • Adapt chemistry laboratory techniques and procedures when errors and discrepancies in results are obtained to effect resolution in a professional and timely manner.

Course Activities and Design

The class is presented by means of lecture/discussion, audio-visual presentations, handouts, demonstrations, web based instructional media and other educationally sound practices. Comprehensive lab work requires demonstration of competency to receive a satisfactory grade. A laboratory manual is provided. The laboratory exercises provide an opportunity for students to employ the testing principles and methodologies discussed and allow for discussion, application and correlation of the concepts presented.  The student is expected to perform all laboratory procedures according to the criteria established by the department. 

Outcome Assessment Strategies

Assessment methods may include written and practical examinations, homework assignments and discussion activities. Student knowledge application, laboratory performance, problem solving skills, punctuality and attendance, participation, and communication skills is assessed in each laboratory exercise utilizing an evaluation rubric that includes cognitive, psychomotor and affective learning domains.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Course Themes:

  • Carbohydrates
    • Glucose metabolism and regulation
    • Diseases associated with glucose metabolism
    • Metabolic relationships
    • Laboratory procedures for glucose analysis
  • Enzymology

    • Enzyme structure and function

    • Enzymes and their associated tissues

    • Diseases and conditions detected and monitored by circulating enzymes

    • Laboratory methodologies for enzyme measurement

    • Enzyme role in laboratory analysis of other analytes

  • Liver Function
    • Etiology and pathophysiology of hepatitis and other liver diseases
    • Liver function panel
    • Bilirubin, pathophysiology and laboratory testing
  • Endocrinology
    • Hormones, pathophysiology and laboratory testing of the thyroid, adrenal and reproductive glands
  • Proteins
    • Protein structure and function
    • Laboratory methods for protein measurement and differentiation
    • Correlation of various diseases and conditions with protein values
  • Protein Electrophoresis
    • Principles and application of serum electrophoresis
    • Normal and abnormal serum electrophoresis patterns
  • Cardiac Markers
    • Etiology and pathophysiology of atherosclerosis
    • Laboratory tests associated with myocardial infarction diagnosis and risk assessment of cardiac vascular disease


Knowledge and Application (Cognitive Skills):

  • Cognitive processes
    • Explain chemistry theory supporting test principles
    • Integrate knowledge and make informed judgments about clinical chemistry  test results  in the clinical setting
    • Formulate a clear, answerable question
    • Predict expected results
    • Follow written protocols and verbal instructions
  • Analysis skills
    • Collect and organize data in a systematic fashion
    • Present data in an appropriate form
    • Assess the validity of the data (including integrity and significance)
    • Recognize errors
    • Draw appropriate conclusions based on the results
  • Troubleshooting and problem solving
    • Recognize errors or discrepancies in results during lab procedures
    • Select corrective actions for problem solving
    • Safety skills
      • Recognize safety equipment and laboratory safety measures
    • Communication skills
      • Discuss and present lab results or findings in the laboratory
    • Interpersonal and citizenry skills
      • Work effectively in teams or groups so that the task, results, and analysis may be shared
      • Effectively manage time and tasks allowing concurrent and/or overlapping tasks to be done simultaneously, by individuals and/or within a group

Performance (Psychomotor Skills):

  • Utilize safety measures and equipment
    • Utilize adequate personal protective equipment, sharp container, fume hood and other safety devices
  • Properly prepare reagents, standards, quality control material, and patient specimens for chemistry procedures
    • Prepare reagents
    • Prepare working standards from stock standard solutions
    • Perform protein free filtrate samples
    • Perform analyte extraction
    • Select  appropriate glassware for the task at hand
    • Use glassware and other laboratory equipment correctly
  • Properly  perform chemistry testing
    • Use of pipets
    • Operate basic laboratory equipment
  • Use a spectrophotometer to perform chemistry procedures
    • Set up the spectrophotometer
    • Handle, clean, and storage of the spectrophotometer
    • Select adequate wavelength
    • Use of a cuvettes
    • Record spectrophotometer results
    • Construct a standard curve
    • Calculate and report  analyte concentrations according to lab protocol
  • Perform serum protein electrophoresis
    • Load sample on to media
    • Operate electrophoretic device
    • Stain electrophoresed serum pattern

Professional (Affective) Skills:

  • Demonstrate interest, enthusiasm, and willingness to learn as seen through active participation.
  • Show initiative and motivation as demonstrated by independence in performing routine procedures, preparation before class, decreased need for supervision, willingness to go beyond the required assignments, and recognition of opportunities to improve quality and productivity of work.
  • Adapt to stressful and/or new situations by maintaining composure and flexibility without compromising individual integrity.
  • Exhibit teamwork through cooperation, courtesy, respect, and sensitivity towards others.
  • Convey a professional attitude as shown by an appropriate level of confidence and a positive outlook toward work and other people.
  • Demonstrate integrity as shown by the admission and documentation of errors, recognition of the potential danger of short cuts, and the maintenance of patient and co-worker confidentiality.
  • Act responsibly and reliably as measured by punctuality, attendance, dependability, and quality of work.
  • Respond favorably to supervision and feedback.
  • Persevere until task is completed satisfactorily.