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CCOG for VT 209 Winter 2024

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Course Number:
VT 209
Course Title:
Large Animal Diseases and Procedures
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Covers the clinically important large animal diseases, disease processes, and obstetric procedures. Includes the causes, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment and prevention of each disease. Focuses on large animal diagnostic and treatment procedures in the laboratory section. Prerequisites: Admission to Veterinary Technology program.

Addendum to Course Description

This course is designed to introduce the student to the wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases and disorders of large animal species. The student will develop knowledge of the scientific name; the common name(s); the species affected; the age, sex, and breed predisposition; the etiology/pathogenesis; the clinical signs; the diagnostic tests and the basis for the diagnosis; the treatment; and the prevention for each disease presented. Large animal diagnostic and treatment procedures will be covered in the laboratory portion of the course.  

It is designed for second year veterinary technology students and is a graduation requirement for the Associates Degree in Applied Sciences in Veterinary Technology. Credits in this course are not transferable to a four year school towards a baccalaureate degree. 

There is no specific text required for this course, although The Merck Veterinary Manual is recommended as a reference book.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon successful completion of the course, the student should be able to:

  • Recognize the important clinical diseases affecting sheep, goats, cattle, camelids, horses and swine- including disease etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, treatment, and prevention.
  • Recognize the common zoonotic diseases of the species listed above.
  • Understand and assist with commonly used diagnostic and treatment procedures used in large animal veterinary practice.
  • Recognize and assist with the elements of a thorough physical examination of camelids and horses.
  • Correctly and safely position horses for radiographs using portable radiographic equipment to evaluate the equine distal limb.
  • Understand and assist with the techniques used for hoof and dental care in camelids and horses.
  • Recognize the anesthetic drugs commonly used for sedation and anesthesia in the horse and special clinical considerations of anesthesia of the horse.

Course Activities and Design

This is a three credit-hour course that meets for two lecture-hours per week, and three lab-hours per week. This course is presented as a series of lectures and laboratories; diseases and disease processes will be covered in order based on species and organ systems. In areas where one disease occurs in multiple species, the comparative aspects shall be presented to the student. The laboratory will concentrate on commonly used diagnostic and treatment procedures used in large animal veterinary practice.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

Grading will be based upon student understanding of the course content as demonstrated by periodic examinations, homework assignments, quizzes, a comprehensive final exam, performance of laboratory tasks, and attendance. To be eligible for a passing grade, the student must have attended a minimum of 80 percent of each of the lecture and lab classes.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Content labeled with an asterisk indicates content required by our accreditor. Content that is also italisized indicates tasks that the student must be able to perform since they are listed as “essential tasks” by the Accreditation Policies and Procedures of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities.


The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the following diseases, disease processes, and disorders that occur in large animal species.


1.1   Discuss or describe for each disease listed in this section (1.0) the following items:

a.     Proper medical name(s) of the disease

b.    Common name(s) of the disease

c.    Species affected

d.    Age Predisposition

e.    Breed predisposition

f.    Etiology/Pathogenesis

g.    Clinical signs

h.    Diagnosis (based on)

i.    Treatment

j.    Prevention

1.2   Equine diseases:  Fill in the list (a-j in 1.1) for the following diseases:

a.    Colic

b.    Give a brief description of the following types of colic (Spasmodic coli, Impaction colic,Thrombo-embolic (verminous) colic, Intussusception, Volvulus or Torsion, Strangulation or Incarceration, Intestinal Stenosis, Acute Dilatation of the Stomach, Intestinal Tympany (flatulent colic), Sand Colic, Retention of Meconium, Choke)

c.    Salmonellosis  

d.    Colitis-X

e.    Ehrlichial colitis

f.    Chronic diarrhea of adult horses

g.    Foal heat diarrhea

h.    Enteric diseases of foals

i.    Streptococcus equi infection

j.    Equine influenza

k.    Equine Herpesvirus 1

l.    Equine Viral Arteritis

m.    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

n.    Guttural Pouch Empyema

o.    Laryngeal Hemiplegia

p.    Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage

q.    Give a brief description of the following types of respiratory diseases:

      1.   Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection

      2.   Rhodococcus equi infection

      3.   Equine Adenovirus infection

      4.   Equine Rhinovirus infection

r.    Eastern, Western, & Venzuelan Encephalomyelitis

s.    Tetanus

t.    Rabies

u.    Equine Wobblers Syndrome

v.     Equine Infectious Anemia

w.     Equine Protozoal Myelitis

x.     West Nile Virus

y.     Exertional Rhabdomyolysis

z.     Babesiosis

aa.   Cystic Calculi

ab.   Poll Evil/Fistulous Withers

ac.   Equine Sarcoid

ad.   Equine Lameness: Understand common etiologies and conformational problems

ae.   Laminitis

af.   Define what a soundness exam is

1.3   Ruminant Diseases:  Fill in the list (a-j in 1.1) for the following diseases:

a.    Bluetongue

b.    Bovine Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease

c.    Malignant Cararrhal Fever

d.    Foot and Mouth Disease

e.    Vesicular Stomatitis

f.    Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis (reticulitis)

g.    Actinobacillosis

h.    Actinomycosis

i.    Ruminal Tympany

j.    Left (& right) Displaced Abomasum

k.    Respiratory Disease Complex

l.    Parainfluenza virus type 3

m.    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis

n.    Anaplasmosis

o.    Babesiosis

p.    Leptospirosis

q.    Necrotic Laryngitis

r.    Listeriosis

s.    Hypomagnesmic Tetany

t.    Parturient Paresis

u.    Ketonemia

v.    Mastitis

w.    Urolithiasis

x.    Haemophilosis

y.    Blackleg

z.    Malignant Edema

aa.   Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis

ab.   Tuberculosis

ac.   Paratuberculosis

ad.   Polioencephalomalacia

ae.   Brucellosis

af.    Pseudorabies

ag.   Interdigital Necrobacillosis

ah.   Clostridium perfringens type B & C infections

ai.   Type D Enterotoxemia

aj.   Pasteurellosis

ak.   Salmonellosis

al.   Chlamydial Polyarthritis-serositis

am.   Contagious Ecthyma

an.   Infectious keratoconjunctivitis

ao.   Chlamydial Abortion

ap.   Pregnancy Toxemia

aq.   Caseative Lymphadenitis

ar.   White Muscle Disease

as.   Scrapie

at.   Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy

au.   Transport Tetany

av.   Tularemia

1.4   Porcine Diseases:  Fill in the list (a-j in 1.1) for the following diseases:

a.    Transmissible Gastroenteritis

b.    Enteric Colibacillosis

c.    Swine Dysentery

d.    Atrophic Rhinitis

e.    Necrotic Rhinitis

f.    Mycoplasmal pneumonia

g.    Swine Influenza

h.    Erysipelas

i.    Parakeratosis

j.    Hog Cholera

  1. List the diseases which Specific Pathogen Free Hogs are considered free.


The goal is for the student to learn the proper method of performing certain large-animal diagnostic and treatment procedures. Students will also learn the methods of patient preparation and assisting for those diagnostic and treatment procedures traditionally performed by veterinarians.

2.1   Be able to describe the anatomical terminology used in radiography of the equine leg.

2.2   Demonstrate proper usage of the portable x-ray machine.*

2.3   Describe the proper positioning of the horse and x-ray machine set-up for the shoulder, elbow, carpus, cannon bone, fetlock, pastern, hoof (coffin and navicular bones), stifle, and tarsus for the following technique listed below.  In each of the aforementioned locations, also tell which of the following techniques are utilized.*

      a.  Dorsopalmar (plantar)

      b.  Lateral

      c.  Dorsolateral - palmaro (plantar) medial oblique

      d.  Dorsomedial - palmaro (plantar) lateral oblique

      e.  Flexed Lateral

      f.  Dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar oblique of coffin bone

      g.  Dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar oblique of navicular bone using “play doh”

      h.  Flexor view of navicular bone

2.4   Understand the indication for the use, the onset of action, duration of action, the nature of the recovery, and the possible adverse reactions of the commonly used drugs used for sedation and anesthesia in the horse.

2.5  Demonstrate the ability to obtain an accurate pulse in all large animal species.*

2.6  Perform supportive equine leg bandaging.*

2.7  Perform an equine tail wrap.*