CCOG for MLT 225 Summer 2024

Course Number:
MLT 225
Course Title:
Clinical Chemistry II
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Introduces pathophysiology, diagnosis, and monitoring of selected human diseases on an organ system basis. Includes lipids, acid-base balance, electrolytes, non-protein nitrogenous waste (creatinine, urea, uric acid), toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring. Prerequisites: MLT 224 and Acceptance into the Medical Laboratory Technology Program. Audit available.

Addendum to Course Description

This course is a continuation of MLT 224; it presents theory of more complex testing in the clinical chemistry laboratory to include the physiological basis for the test, specimen type, tests principles, expected values, sources of error, limitations of the test and disease correlation.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Make decisions about the validity of test results using an understanding of abnormal test results and their correlation with appropriate pathologic conditions.
  • Apply appropriate laboratory techniques, methodologies, instruments and equipment in the performance of clinical chemistry testing to affect quality patient care.
  • Adapt chemistry laboratory techniques and procedures when errors and discrepancies in results are obtained to effect resolution in a professional and timely manner.

Course Activities and Design

The class is presented by means of lecture/discussion, audio-visual presentations, handouts, demonstrations, web based instructional media and other educationally sound practices. Comprehensive lab work requires demonstration of competency to receive a satisfactory grade. A laboratory manual is provided. The laboratory exercises provide an opportunity for students to employ the testing principles and methodologies discussed and allow for discussion, application and correlation of the concepts presented.  The student is expected to perform all laboratory procedures according to the criteria established by the department. 

Outcome Assessment Strategies

Assessment methods may include written and practical examinations, homework assignments and discussion activities. Student knowledge application, laboratory performance, problem solving skills, punctuality and attendance, participation, and communication skills is assessed in each laboratory exercise utilizing an evaluation rubric that includes cognitive, psychomotor and affective learning domains.  

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Course Themes:

  • Acid-base Balance
  • Physiologic buffers and buffer systems
  • Acid-base disorders and their causes
  • Compensatory mechanisms and acid-base disorders
  • Laboratory procedures for blood gas analysis
  • Correlating diseases and conditions with abnormal results
  • Electrolytes

    • Major electrolytes and electrolyte homeostasis

    • Principles in electrolyte testing and the instrumentation involved

  • Non-Protein Nitrogenous waste

    • Urea, creatinine and uric acid testing methodology and disease correlation

    • Creatinine clearance test and its correlation with kidney function

  • Lipids: Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    • Normal and abnormal lipid metabolism

    • Structure and function of lipoproteins

    • Correlation of lipid panel results with disease states and associated risk assessment

    • Laboratory methodologies for lipid analysis

  • Toxicology and TDM
    • Principles of pharmacology
    • Thin layer chromatography
    • Gas liquid chromatography
    • Mass spectrometry
    • Immunoassays


Knowledge and Application (Cognitive Skills):

  • Cognitive processes
    • Explain chemistry theory supporting test principles
    • Integrate knowledge and make informed judgments about clinical chemistry  test results  in the clinical setting
    • Formulate a clear, answerable question
    • Predict expected results
    • Follow written protocols and verbal instructions
  • Analysis skills
    • Collect and organize data in a systematic fashion
    • Present data in an appropriate form
    • Assess the validity of the data (including integrity and significance)
    • Recognize errors
    • Draw appropriate conclusions based on the results
  • Troubleshooting and problem solving
    • Recognize errors or discrepancies in results during lab procedures
    • Select corrective actions for problem solving
    • Safety skills
      • Recognize safety equipment and laboratory safety measures
    • Communication skills
      • Discuss and present lab results or findings in the laboratory
    • Interpersonal and citizenry skills
      • Work effectively in teams or groups so that the task, results, and analysis may be shared
      • Effectively manage time and tasks allowing concurrent and/or overlapping tasks to be done simultaneously, by individuals and/or within a group

Psychomotor skills:

  • Utilize safety measures and equipment
    • Utilize adequate personal protective equipment, sharp container, fume hood and other safety devices
  • Properly prepare reagents, standards, quality control material, and patient specimens for chemistry procedures
    • Prepare reagents
    • Prepare working standards from stock standard solutions
    • Perform protein free filtrate samples
    • Perform analyte extraction
    • Select  appropriate glassware for the task at hand
    • Use glassware and other laboratory equipment correctly
  • Properly  perform chemistry testing
    • Use of pipets
    • Operate basic laboratory equipment
  • Use a spectrophotometer to perform chemistry procedures
    • Set up the spectrophotometer
    • Handle, clean, and storage of the spectrophotometer
    • Select adequate wavelength
    • Use of a cuvettes
    • Record spectrophotometer results
    • Construct a standard curve
    • Calculate and report  analyte concentrations according to lab protocol

Professional (Affective) Skills:

  • Demonstrate interest, enthusiasm, and willingness to learn as seen through active participation.
  • Show initiative and motivation as demonstrated by independence in performing routine procedures, preparation before class, decreased need for supervision, willingness to go beyond the required assignments, and recognition of opportunities to improve quality and productivity of work.
  • Adapt to stressful and/or new situations by maintaining composure and flexibility without compromising individual integrity.
  • Exhibit teamwork through cooperation, courtesy, respect, and sensitivity towards others.
  • Convey a professional attitude as shown by an appropriate level of confidence and a positive outlook toward work and other people.
  • Demonstrate integrity as shown by the admission and documentation of errors, recognition of the potential danger of short cuts, and the maintenance of patient and co-worker confidentiality.
  • Act responsibly and reliably as measured by punctuality, attendance, dependability, and quality of work.
  • Respond favorably to supervision and feedback.
  • Persevere until task is completed satisfactorily.