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CCOG for MLT 110 Fall 2022

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Course Number:
MLT 110
Course Title:
Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology
Credit Hours:
3
Lecture Hours:
20
Lecture/Lab Hours:
0
Lab Hours:
30

Course Description

Introduces the field of clinical laboratory science. Includes an introduction to the use and care of laboratory equipment and supplies. Provides basic concepts and technical skills necessary in the clinical laboratory field including safety, quality control, laboratory testing and communication. Prerequisites: (CH 104 or CH 221), (BI 121 or BI 231), (MTH 95 or any course for which MTH 95 is a prerequisite), and (WR 121 or any course for which WR 121 is a prerequisite) or instructor permission.

Addendum to Course Description

This survey course provides an introduction into the field of clinical laboratory science. The role of medical laboratory sciences will be presented in the context of providing quality patient health care. The importance of utilizing effective written and verbal communication in the clinical setting will be emphasized. The proper use and care of the microscope, centrifuge, spectrophotometer and other laboratory equipment and supplies will be discussed. The course will focus on the physical, chemical and microscopic assessment of the urine; the structure, function and identification of normal blood cells; the determination and interpretation of blood glucose level; the inheritance, structure and identification of ABO and Rh blood groups; the basic morphology and gram stain of clinically significant bacteria; lab safety techniques; quality control and general terminology utilized in the clinical laboratory.  Students will be expected to properly perform laboratory exercises related to the subject matter discussed.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Recognize the role of medical laboratory technology in the context of providing quality patient health care.
  • Perform basic clinical laboratory procedures using appropriate laboratory techniques and instrumentation in accordance with current laboratory safety protocol.
  • Calculate and properly report laboratory data.
  • Interpret laboratory results in accordance to laboratory protocol.
  • Use effective written and verbal communication that represents competence and professionalism in the clinical laboratory setting.

Course Activities and Design

The class will be presented by means of lecture/discussion, audio-visual presentations, handouts, demonstrations, web based instructional media and other educationally sound practices. There will be comprehensive lab work requiring demonstrated competency to receive a satisfactory grade. A laboratory manual will be provided. Laboratory exercises will provide an opportunity for students to employ the testing principles and methodologies introduced and will allow for discussion, application and correlation of the concepts presented.  The student is expected to perform all laboratory procedures according to the criteria established by the department. 

Outcome Assessment Strategies

At the beginning of the course, the instructor will outline the methods used to evaluate student progress and the criteria for assigning a grade. Assessment methods may include written and practical examinations, homework assignments and discussion activities. Student knowledge application, laboratory performance, problem solving skills, punctuality and attendance, participation, and communication skills will be assessed in each laboratory exercise utilizing an evaluation rubric that includes cognitive, psychomotor and affective learning levels.  

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Course Themes

  • The role of medical laboratory technology in the healthcare industry.
  • Communication in the Laboratory setting.
  • Accuracy, attention to detail, organization and quality control.
  • Safe and accurate performance of laboratory procedures.

Concepts

  • Clinical Laboratory Overview:
    • Main laboratory departments
    • Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical steps
    • Sample types
    • Laboratory Tests
  • Laboratory Safety:
    • Bloodborne pathogens
    • Chemical hygiene
    • Exposure control plan
    • PPE, safety devices and techniques
  • Laboratory Testing
    • Spectrophotometry
      • Beer’s and Lambert’s Laws
      • The relationship between absorbency and transmittance
      • Wavelength selection and absorbency and sensitivity
      • Laboratory procedure utilizing spectrophotometer
    • Clinical Chemistry:
      • Diagnostic testing performed in clinical chemistry
      • Glucose metabolism and regulation
      • Diseases associated with glucose metabolism
      • Laboratory procedure: glucose analysis
    • Urinalysis
      • Renal anatomy and physiology
      • Physiologic assessment using urinalysis
      • Correlating diseases with abnormal results
      • Laboratory procedure: urinalysis
    • Hematology:
      • Diagnostic testing performed in hematology
      • White blood cell morphology
      • Red blood cell morphology
      • Laboratory procedure: identification of blood cells under the microscope
    • Blood bank:
      • Testing and information provided by the blood bank
      • ABO and RH blood types
      • Laboratory procedure: ABO/Rh typing
    •  Microbiology:
      • The role of microbiology in the treatment of human infectious diseases
      • Clinical significant pathogen vs normal flora
      • Bacterial identification
      • Bacterial morphology - Gram stains
      • Laboratory procedure: Gram stains
  • Communication
    • Importance of effective communication in the clinical setting
    • Effective written communication
    • Effective verbal communication

Skills:

Cognitive skills:

  • Discussing the role of medical laboratory technology in the context of health care
  • Integrating knowledge and making informed judgments about laboratory procedures and test results in the clinical setting
  • Selecting  laboratory equipment and materials adequately
  • Locating safety devices and adequately selecting safety measures  and techniques when working in the laboratory
  • Calculating laboratory results accurately
  • Reporting data in an appropriate format
  • Assessing the validity of the data (including integrity and significance)
  • Recognizing errors and developing a corrective course of action
  • Drawing appropriate conclusions based on the results
  • Using appropriate communication skills, such as;
    • Following written protocols and verbal instructions
    • Formulating a clear, answerable question
    • Discussing and presenting lab results or findings in the laboratory in a clear and timely manner

Psychomotor skills:

  • Utilizing proper technique when performing laboratory examinations
  • Demonstrating proper care and usage of laboratory equipment and materials:
    •   Microscope
      • Cleaning objective and ocular lenses using lens paper
      • Adjusting inter-pupillary distance and diopter to individual features
      • Selecting appropriate lightening by manipulating the condenser, iris diaphragm and rheostat
      • Focusing using appropriate knobs
      • Utilizing immersion oil when using x1000 magnification
      • Cleaning and adequately stowing away microscope when not in use
    • Centrifuge
      • Balancing centrifuge
      • Selecting appropriate rpm and time required for task at hand
      • Closing lid before turning on centrifuge
      • Opening the lid only when centrifuge as come to a complete stop
    • Spectrophotometer
      • Selecting adequate wavelength
      • Zeroing out background transmittance
      • Blanking the spectro utilizing an adequate blank
      • Reading and recording result correctly
    • Pipets
      • Selecting adequate pipet for the task at hand
      • Operating micropipet and glass pipet  according to protocol
    • Glassware
      • Manipulating glassware safely and promptly disposing of any broken glass into sharps container
    • Reagents
      • Labeling, storing, utilizing and disposing of all reagents according to protocol
      • Minimizing waste
    • Samples
      • Handling all samples using universal precautions
      • Labeling all samples and maintaining confidentiality by complying with HIPPA regulations
  • Adhering to safety measures
    • Washing hands prior to and following laboratories and at any time contamination is suspected
    • Disinfecting lab benches and equipment prior to and at the conclusion of each lab session, using an appropriate disinfectant and allowing a suitable contact time
    • Selecting and utilizing proper protective equipment (PPE)
    • Identifying and  proper disposing of different types of waste
    • Returning materials to proper locations and keeping the bench top clear of extraneous materials
    • Tying long hair back, wearing personal protective equipment (eye protection, coats, gloves, closed shoes), and using such equipment in appropriate situations
    • Locating and properly using emergency equipment (eye wash stations, first aid kits, fire extinguishers, chemical safety showers)

Affective skills:

  • Demonstrating  initiative by beginning work in a timely manner without being reminded
  • Demonstrating dependability by being punctual and by completing work within established deadlines
  • Exhibiting professional appearance by adhering to laboratory dress code
  • Organizing work flow and determining priorities
  • Producing accurate work within the allotted time
  • Interrelating with instructor and peers in a constructive, professional manner through good communication  and effective team skills
  • Willingly following instructions and accepting constructive criticism
  • Demonstrating awareness  of own limitations, and seeking help when needed
  • Handling stressful situations calmly and efficiently
  • Demonstrates integrity when taking examinations, checking for mistakes, repeating questionable results and admitting and correcting mistakes
  • Adhering to all safety regulations in the laboratory