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CCOG for ENGR 226 Fall 2023

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Course Number:
ENGR 226
Course Title:
Plane Surveying
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:

Course Description

Introduces basic concepts of plane surveying. Includes use of tape, level, and electronic total station, along with horizontal and vertical control networks. Includes network calculations and adjustments, angles and bearings, and topographic surveying and mapping. Prerequisites: MTH 112 or any MTH course for which MTH 112 is a prerequisite or equivalent placement. Audit available.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  1. Collect, analyze, and adjust field measurements in an outdoor setting.
  2. Create horizontal and vertical control networks.
  3. Work in small teams with individuals of diverse cultural backgrounds using verbal communication.
  4. Perform surveying in a manner that is safe for team members, the surveying equipment used, and the environment.
  5. Create computer solutions for common surveying problems utilizing spreadsheet software.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

  • Individual, small group, and full class discussion; homework problems; laboratory proficiency; exams; team project deliverables; and peer evaluations may be used to assess outcomes.
  • Lecture, homework, and laboratory will be coordinated. Indoor and outdoor laboratory work will be conducted in teams of 3 to 4 persons.
  • Specific evaluation procedures will be defined during the first week of class. In general, grading will depend on homework, laboratory participation and proficiency, a team project, written examinations, and a "hands on" examination of ETS techniques.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)


1. Standardization of data collection methods and recording procedures is essential.
2. Location of points is a 3-dimensional operation and is relative to the datums used.
3. Raw data is useless to the client until transformed into useful written and graphical documents.
4. Professionalism, including ethical conduct.

1. Interrelation of surveying and engineering.
2. ORS 672, Oregon's registration law for Professional Engineers and Professional Land Surveyors.
3. Units of measure and terms employed in plane surveying.
a. Length: meters, feet, "historical" units.
b. Area: square meters, square feet, hectares, acres.
c. Angle: radians, degree-minutes-seconds.
4. Surveying methods/instruments.
a. Length: pacing, stadia, taping, ETS.
b. Elevation: 3-point automatic level, ETS.c. Angle: 3-point theodolite, ETS.
5. Computation procedures in surveying including discussion of significant figures and the difference between accuracy and precision.
6. Demonstration of stadia methods for determining linear distance.
7. Measurement and layout of distances using steel tapes on level and sloped ground.
8. Measurement and layout of distances using an ETS.
9. Curvature of the earth and refraction and their implications to leveling.
10. Transfer of elevations from one point to another by differential leveling.
11. Comparison of field elevation closure with acceptable closure as defined by governing agencies.
12. Adjustment of level loops.
13. Angles right, angles left, deflection angles right, deflection angles left.
14. Calculation bearings, azimuths, and angles for given traverses.
15. Magnetic bearings and azimuths.
16. Magnetic declination and variation.
17. Measurement of traverse angles and distances.
18. Field angular closure vs. acceptable closure as defined by governing agencies.
19. Balancing of angles.
20. Computation of bearings/azimuths and latitudes and departures.
21. Comparison of field traverse closure with acceptable closure as defined by governing agencies.
22. Adjustment of traverse.
23. Computation of coordinates of adjusted traverse points.
24. Computation of areas.
25. Determination of 3D (north, east, elevation) coordinates of topographic points.
26. Plotting of topographic data.
27. Contouring.
28. Random errors and their distribution using a probability curve.
29. Most probable value, standard error of the sample, standard error of the mean, and confidence limits.
30. Propagation of errors.
31. In the laboratory:
a. Establish of vertical control, i.e., benchmarks.
b. Establish of horizontal control, i.e., a traverse.
c. Gather traverse and topographic information using an ETS.
d. Make adjustments to vertical and horizontal control networks.
e. Plot topographic data.
f. Prepare a topographic map.
g. Demonstrate proficiency with surveying instruments and computations.

The student will be able to:
1. Describe the roles of Professional Land Surveyors, Professional Engineers, engineering or surveying technicians, and state statutes governing engineering and surveying services.
2. Use various units of plane surveying and describe past and present surveying instruments.
3. Use various methods and equipment available for:
a. determining elevations.
b. measuring linear distances.
c. measuring angles.
4. Employ units of angular measurement, define kinds of horizontal angles, and comprehend, differentiate between, and calculate bearings and azimuths.
5. Use the compass including correction for declination and variation.
6. Measure traverse angles and distances.
7. Make traverse computations and adjustments.
8. Calculate area defined by points of known location.
9. Determine linear distance by stadia methods.
10. Conduct topographic surveys using ETSÍs.
11. Prepare topographic maps.
12. Correct for systematic errors and use probability theory to deal with random errors occurring in surveying measurements.