- Course Number:
- VT 108
- Course Title:
- Pharmaceutical Mathematics 1
- Credit Hours:
- 1
- Lecture Hours:
- 10
- Lecture/Lab Hours:
- 0
- Lab Hours:
- 0
- Special Fee:

#### Course Description

Introduces mathematics as applied to pharmacology. Includes unit conversions, solutions and percentage calculations, and drug dosage calculations. Prerequisites: Admission to Veterinary Technology program.#### Addendum to Course Description

The purpose of this course is to teach the veterinary technology student the fundamentals of pharmaceutical mathematics. This is designed for first-year veterinary technology students and is a graduation requirement for the Associates Degree in Applied Sciences in Veterinary Technology. Credits in this course are not transferable to a four year school towards a baccalaureate degree. No text is required for this course.

#### Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:

- Accurately calculate veterinary drug dosages and convert between units.
- Accurately calculate temperature conversions between Celsius and Fahrenheit.
- Recognize the physical forms of drugs and equipment used in drug measurement.
- Describe methods and equipment used in medicating animals by oral and parenteral administration.
- Read drug labels and interpret a veterinarian's drug orders as well as create labels for veterinary client use.
- Define symbols and abbreviations used in prescription writing.
- Read and write a prescription and its component parts, under the order of a veterinarian.
- Calculate percentages of solutions for diluting and mixing purposes.
- Determine and maintain IV fluid infusion rates for veterinary patients.
- Recognize and understand the use of IV fluid types and the delivery systems used.

#### Course Activities and Design

This course is designed to be a lecture course. It is a one credit-hour course that meets for one lecture-hour per week. Topics will include unit conversions, solutions and percentage calculations, alligation, drug dosage calculations and basic fluid therapy.

#### Outcome Assessment Strategies

Grading will be based upon student understanding of the course content as demonstrated by periodic examinations, homework assignments, quizzes, a comprehensive final exam and attendance. To be eligible for a passing grade, the student must have attended a minimum of 80 percent of each of the lecture and lab classes

#### Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

Content labeled with an asterisk indicates content required by our accreditor. Content that is also *italisized *indicates tasks that the student must be able to perform since they are listed as essential tasks by the Accreditation Policies and Procedures of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities.

1.0 DOSAGE CALCULATIONS AND CONVERSIONS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of calculating drug dosages and converting between units of the metric, apothecaries and household systems using the label factor method (dimensional analysis).

OBJECTIVES:

1.1 Review basic math as it applies to the metric system.

1.2 Define the following units and abbreviations:

a. gram Gm or g

b. milligram mg

c. microgram ug

d. kilogram kg

e. liter L

f. milliliter ml or cc

g. minim m

h. grain gr

i. pound lb

j. dram dr

k. ounce oz

l. pint pt

m. quart qt

n. drop gt

o. teaspoon tsp

p. tablespoon tbsp

q. units u

r. milliequivalent meq

1.3 Know the approximate equivalents:

a. 65 milligrams= 1 grain

b. 1 gram=1000 miligrams= 15 grains

c. 15 grams= 4 drams= 1 tablespoon= 3 teaspoons= 15 milliliters

d. 30 grams= 1 ounce= 2 tablespoons = 30 milliliters

e. 16 ounces= 1 pound=454 grams

f. 1 kilogram= 1000 grams= 2.2 pounds

g. 1 milliliter= 15 minims= 15 drops

h. 1 quart= 946 milliliters

i. 1 pint= 473 milliliters

j. 1 milligram= 1000 micrograms

1.4 Define and perform the steps in applying the label factor method to conversion between metric, apothecaries and household systems.

1.5 Be able to convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature.

1.6 Be able to calculate drug dosages in dry or liquid measure based on body weight.

2.0 FORMS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN DOSAGE MEASUREMENT

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of drug forms and equipment used in drug measurement.

OBJECTIVES:

2.1 Define the following terms:

a. Tablet

b. Capsule

c. Elixir

d. Suspensions

e. Solutions

2.2 Describe the following methods and equipment used in medicating animals by oral and parenteral administration.

a. Calibrated dropper

b. Dose syringe

c. 3cc-60cc syringe (luer slip and lock tip) and needles

d. Tuberculin syringe

e. Insulin syringes (regular and lo-dose)

f. Multidose syringe

g. Pre-filled syringe

3.0 DRUG LABELS, PRESCRIPTIONS AND INTERPRETING DRUG ORDERS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to become proficient at reading drug labels and interpreting drug orders as well as create labels for veterinary client use.

OBJECTIVES:

3.1 Describe the following parts of a drug label

a. Generic name

b. Brand name

c. Name of manufacturer

d. Total volume of container

e. Administration route

f. Dosage strength

g. dosage form

h. Supply dosage

i. Directions for mixing

j. Expiration date

3.2 Describe how a veterinarian writes drug orders and how to interpret them; create a label in a form a client can understand.

3.3 Define symbols and abbreviations used in prescription writing.

3.4 Describe how to read and write a prescription and its component parts.

4.0 SOLUTIONS AND PERCENTAGE

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of calculating percentages of solutions for diluting and mixing purposes.

OBJECTIVES:

4.1 Define and calculate the percentage of solutions, the volume of concentrate or the volume of diluent using the formula method.

4.2 Define each of the following terms as they relate to percentage solutions.

a. Percent weight in volume (w/v)

b. Percent weight in weight (w/w)

c. Percent volume in volume (v/v)

d. one part per million (1ppm)

e. 100% solution concentration (mg/ml)

4.3 Be able to perform percentage calculations by alligation alternate (Pearson square) and alligation medial methods.

5.0 FLUID THERAPY

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of basic use of fluids in veterinary practice as well as calculate the amount and rate of fluid administration.

OBJECTIVES:

5.1 List the indications for administering fluid therapy.

5.2 Define and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following routes of fluid administration.

a. Oral

b. Intravenous

c. Subcutaneous

d. Intraperitoneal

e. Intraosseous

5.3 Define and list the reasons the following fluids may be used.

a. Lactated Ringers solution

b. Ringers solution

c. Dextrose 5% in water

d. Normal Saline

e. Half strength saline

f. 50% dextrose

5.4 Define and calculate the amount of fluid needed to rehydrate, maintain and replace ongoing losses in a dehydrated animal. *

5.5 List and understand the use of the following equipment *

a. Standard drip IV set

b. Pediatric drip IV set

c. Buretrol IV set

5.6 Calculate the IV flow rate when the total infusion time or infusion rate is specified using the formula method. *