### CCOG for PHY 100 Fall 2024

- Course Number:
- PHY 100
- Course Title:
- Everyday Physics
- Credit Hours:
- 4
- Lecture Hours:
- 30
- Lecture/Lab Hours:
- 0
- Lab Hours:
- 30

#### Course Description

#### Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon successful completion of the course students should be able to:

- Apply knowledge of mechanics, fluids, thermodynamics, sound waves, electricity, magnetism, and light to explain natural physical processes and related technological advances.
- Use an understanding of elementary mathematics along with physical principles to effectively solve problems encountered in everyday life, further study in science, and in the professional world.
- Perform experiments and acquire data in order to explore physical principles, effectively communicate results, and critically evaluate related scientific studies.
- Critically examine the influence of scientific and technical knowledge of physical laws and theories on human society and the environment.

#### Quantitative Reasoning

Students completing an associate degree at Portland Community College will be able to analyze questions or problems that impact the community and/or environment using quantitative information.

#### General education philosophy statement

PHY 100, which delves into a conceptual understanding of physics, enlightens the student of their natural and technological environments. It adapts the learner to reason both quantitatively, through manipulating mathematical formulas, and qualitatively, through piecing together scientific laws. And, in this process, the learner will slowly acquire the skill to conceptually organize theoretical knowledge and experiential observation to formulate the truth.

#### Course Activities and Design

Course activities could include:

- lectures including interactive group work and clicker questions
- videos to provide historical context and technical insights
- small group or online discussions
- reading quizzes
- hands on/kinetic learning during lab time

#### Outcome Assessment Strategies

At the beginning of the course, the instructor will detail the methods used to evaluate student progress and the criteria for assigning a course grade. The methods may include one or more of the following tools:

- examinations and quizzes,
- homework assignments,
- laboratory reports and/or worksheets
- research papers,
- small group problem solving of questions arising from application of course concepts and concerns to actual experience,
- oral presentations, or
- maintenance of a personal lab manual.

The student will be evaluated on a combination of written tests covering both lecture and lab experiences, required lab reports/worksheets, and on turned-in homework questions (verbal skills and reasoning in written format) and problems (quantitative).

#### Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

**1. MOTION AND FORCES**

The goal is to describe motion and understand how forces cause motion.

- Develop knowledge and understanding of the variables of displacement, speed, average speed, velocity, and acceleration.
- Introduce formulas for calculating these quantities and solve problems using these formulas.
- Study constant acceleration problems with particular emphasis on free fall.
- Introduce Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion:
- Newton’s 1st Law. Discussion should include:
- Inertia
- Net force
- Equilibrium

- Newton’s 2nd Law. Develop the following concepts:
- Calculating force and acceleration
- Friction
- Air drag and terminal velocity

- Newton’s 1st Law. Discussion should include:

c. Newton’s 3rd Law

d. Differentiate between Aristotelian and Galilean views on motion.

5. Introduce vectors: Graphical representation, addition of vectors and vector components.

**2. GRAVITY, PROJECTILE MOTION AND SATELLITES**

The goal is to apply knowledge of linear motion and vectors to study 2-dimensional motion.

- Universal law of gravity
- Inverse square law
- Historical discussion of discovery of “Big G”, the universal gravitation constant

- Vertical and horizontal motion of projectiles.
- Maximum projectile height.
- Maximum projectile range.
- Angle that produces maximum range
- Satellite motion including orbital motion and Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion.
- Escape speed including historical study of probes that have left the solar system (Pioneer, Voyager, New Horizons).

**3. FLUID MECHANICS**

Develop and explore the following concepts related to liquids.

- Density
- Pressure, including both atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure.
- Buoyancy & Archimedes’ Principle
- Pressure & Buoyancy in gas
- Pascal’s Principle
- Bernoulli’s Principle
- Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle, including Magnus effect and airplane wings.

**4. HEAT, TEMPERATURE AND THERMODYNAMICS**

The goal is to develop knowledge of the thermal properties of matter, and skills in problem solving using these concepts.

- Understand the workings of various types of thermometers and the various temperature scales they employ.
- Historical context of temperature scales and discovery of absolute zero.

- Clarify the relationship of molecular motion to temperature.
- Understand heat as energy, and differentiate concepts of “heat” and “temperature”
- Discuss the specific heat capacity of various materials.
- Specific heat capacity of water, how this affects global climate

- Explain role of temperature in the expansion and contraction of various materials.
- Expansion of water as it freezes, how this affects aquatic life in winter

- Study mechanisms of heat transfer: convection, conduction and radiation.
- Discuss the various ways matter can change phase: condensation/evaporation and melting/freezing.
- Climate change and the greenhouse effect

**5. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM**

The goal is to develop an understanding of the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism.

- Define: electrical force (Coulomb’s Law), charge, electric field, and electric potential.
- Define: electric current, electric resistance, electric power.
- Introduce and experimentally investigate Ohm’s Law in electrical circuits.
- Explain common electrical concepts such as “ground”, “short circuit”, AC vs DC, etc.

- Describe and differentiate between: parallel and series electrical circuits.
- Define: magnetic force and magnetic fields
- Explain the effects of magnetic fields on moving charge

Describe how electric motors and generators work and the role of magnetism in their function.

**6. WAVES AND SOUND**

The goal is to gain an awareness of how the principles of physics apply to waves and sound.

- Define: wavelength, frequency and wave speed.
- Describe and differentiate between: transverse and longitudinal waves.
- Give practical examples of waves (interference, the Doppler effect, bow waves and shock waves, beats, standing waves).
- Define: sound, resonance, pitch.
- Describe and differentiate between: sound intensity and loudness.
- Give examples and compare: reflection and refraction of sound.
- Explain how musical instruments produce sound.

**7. LIGHT AND OPTICS**

The goal is to develop an understanding of the basic concepts of light and optics.

- Describe the properties of electromagnetic waves.
- Explain the properties of and differentiate between: ratio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x rays and gamma rays

- Describe and differentiate between: transparent and opaque materials.
- Describe selective reflection and transmission.
- Experimentally explore image formation using mirrors and lenses.
- Describe refraction, introduce Snell’s Law and give examples in nature (mirages).
- Define color mixing theory and give examples of how colors form in nature (sky, rainbows, clouds).
- Define dispersion and give examples in nature (rainbows).

EACH WEEK, LABS WILL BE PRESENTED THAT CORRESPOND TO THE MATERIAL COVERED IN THE LECTURE SESSIONS.