Use this tool to understand how the research skills contained in the course outcomes, or other indicators, align with developmental stages of information literacy and critical thinking. See how PCC Librarians can help support the integration of research concepts and skills at levels appropriate to the course outcomes. This guide was prepared by the PCC librarians for Microbiology (BI 234)

Research support framework

The following shows where Microbiology fits into the Research Support Framework developed by PCC Librarians.

Information literacy developmental stage: 
Critical Thinking Support
  • I can explain and describe my position on this issue, and support it with primary sources
  • I can accurately summarize the scholarly conversation
Cognitive domains and information literacy outcomes: 
  • Complexity in research and analysis
  • Participant in scholarly conversation

Library support of CCOGs

These are the course outcomes and other indicators which require library support.

Intended course outcomes related to information literacy: 

B. Use an understanding of the impact of microbes on human cultures around the world both historically and in the present day to evaluate current social health issues.

D. Use an understanding of research and laboratory experiences to organize, evaluate, and present data and information to illustrate and articulate basic microbiology concepts.

Outcome assessment strategies relating to information literacy: 

Research paper(s) on microbial topics, library skills and presentations

Course content relating to information literacy: 

Library research skills
Writing scientific research paper


Course integrated research support

These are the ways that the librarians can support information literacy achievement for the students in this course.

Corresponding information literacy outcomes: 
  1. Create a research question related to microbiology and human culture
  2. Integrate sources from primary scientific literature to support thesis
  3. Identify reliable quantitative data sources for current social health issues


Information literacy instructional objectives: 
  1. Relate background information from books and other sources to historical context
  2. Use library databases to locate date to synthesize from medical journals and primary scientific sources
  3. Identify reliable and authoritative information providers


Bridging competencies: 
  • Understand utility of books for historical topics, using their indexes and table of contents to read selectively
  • Navigate to library databases, to select those that are appropriate for selected topic(s)
  • Identify "authority" of authors, recognizing significance of author affiliation statements or organizations
  • Differentiate between magazine and journal articles
Library Assignment Ideas: 
  • Using Google Scholar, search for a journal article about a Microbiology topic, then link out to the "Cited By" authors