PCC/ CCOG / VT

Course Content and Outcome Guide for VT 205 Effective Winter 2016

Course Number:
VT 205
Course Title:
Veterinary Pharmacology
Credit Hours:
4
Lecture Hours:
40
Lecture/Lab Hours:
0
Lab Hours:
0
Special Fee:
 

Course Description

Introduces general pharmacological principles, drugs, and classification of agents used in veterinary medicine. Covers therapeutic responses to drugs and common adverse drug reactions. Prerequisites: Admission to Veterinary Technology program.

Addendum to Course Description

The purpose of this course is to teach the veterinary technology student the principles of pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic indications, drug classifications and specific drugs within each class, proper methods of administration of each drug, biologicals, controlled substances, possible adverse reaction of each drug, and a review of posology.  

This is designed for second year veterinary technology students and is a graduation requirement for the Associates Degree in Applied Sciences in Veterinary Technology. Credits in this course are not transferable to a four year school towards a baccalaureate degree.  

The textbook required for this course is Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics for the Veterinary Technician, by Robert Bill.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon successful completion of the course, the the will be able to:

  • Recognize and define the common terms used in pharmacology and understand drug dosage forms and vehicles.
  • Interpret a drug order, a prescription, and label dispensed medications correctly.
  • Understand how to purchase handle, store, dispense and keep inventory of controlled substances.
  • Recognize and define the category of controlled drugs.
  • Describe the record keeping requirements and dispensing limitations for each of the five schedules of controlled substances.
  • Recognize the various routes or drug administration, mechanisms of action, potential for adverse drug reactions and human hazards from classes of veterinary drugs.
  • Describe the veterinary application of emergency medicine drugs and toxin antidotes.

Course Activities and Design

This course is designed to be a lecture course. It is a four credit-hour course that meets for four lecture hours per week.  

Topics covered will be definitions, general pharmacological principles, posology, routes of administration, drug toxicities and adverse reactions, controlled substances, anti-parasitics, analgesics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobials, and emergency medicine drugs.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

  • Grades will be based on the student understanding of the course content as demonstrated by periodic lecture examinations, quizzes, homework assignments, a comprehensive final exam, and by attendance.  To earn a passing grade, the student must have attended a minimum of 80 percent of each of the lecture classes.
  • Graduate performance on the "Pharmacology" subsection of the Veterinary Technicians National Examination.
  • These outcomes will be routinely assessed and used to drive relevant changes in the curriculum.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

1.0 DEFINITIONS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of the following terms as they apply to veterinary pharmacology.

OBJECTIVES:

1.1 Define the following terms

    a. Pharmacology

    b. Drug

    c. Posology

    d. Chemotherapy

    e. Toxicology

    f. Metrology

    g. Stimulant

    h. Depressant

    i. Narcotic

    j. Anesthetic

    k. Diuretic

    l. Analgesic

    m. Antipyretic

    n. Analeptic

    o. Astringent

    p. Hemostatic

    q. Bacteriostatic

    r. Bacteriostatic

    s. Disinfectant

    t. Antiseptic

    u. Emetic

    v. Cathartic

    w. Antitussive

    x. Antipruitic

1.2 Define and give an example of the following.

    a. Chemical drug name

    b. Generic drug name

    c. Trade drug name

    d. Prescription drug

    e. Patented drug

    f. Over-the-counter drug

    g. Legend drug

    h. Extra label use of drugs

1.3 Define and understand the use of the following drug dosage forms and vehicles.

    a. Waters

    b. Syrups

    c. Elixirs

    d. Sterile water

    e. sterile saline

    f. Propylene glycol

    g. Solution

    h. Suspension

    i. Powder

    j. Capsule

    k. Tablet

    l. Bolus

    m. Implant

    n. Lotion

    o. Liniment

    p. Ointment

    q. Paste

    r. Suppository

2.0 INTERPRETING DRUG ORDERS AND DISPENSING OF DRUGS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of how to interpret a drug order, a prescription and label dispensed medications correctly. The student must also understand how to purchase handle, store, dispense and keep inventory of controlled substances.

OBJECTIVES:

2.1 Identify the following parts of prescription.

    a. Heading

    b. Superscription

    c. Subscription

    d. Inscription

    e. Label

    f. DEA number

    g. Signature

2.2 Define the common abbreviations used in veterinary medicine.

2.3 Interpret written prescriptions; label and dispense medications as ordered.

2.4 Review applications of pharmaceutical mathematics taught in VT 108.

    a. Label factor method

    b. Alligation

    c. Percentage of solutions

2.5 Define and give several examples of controlled drugs in each category.

    a. Schedule I

    b. Schedule II

    c. Schedule III

    d. Schedule IV

    e. Schedule V

2.6 Describe the record keeping requirements and dispensing limitations for each of the five schedules of controlled substances.

2.7 Be able to fill out DEA form 222.

2.8 Describe how to keep and maintain a controlled drug inventory and log of use.

2.9 Describe how to legally handle, store and dispose of controlled substances.

3.0 ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of various routes or drug administration and gain a basic understanding of the mechanism of action of drugs. The student will also be able to understand the potential for adverse drug reactions and human hazards from veterinary drugs.

OBJECTIVES:

3.1 Compare the routes of administration for onset time, duration of action, physiochemical properties and relative dosage regimes.

    a. Oral

    b. Rectal

    c. Parenteral

    d. Intra-arterial

    e. Intramuscular

    f. Intraperitoneal

    g. Subcutaneous

    h. Intradermal

    i. Inhalation

    j. Topical

    k. Epidural

    l. Intra-articular

    m. Otic

    o. Ophthalmic

    p. Intracardiac

    q. Vaginal

3.2 Be able to explain the following factors involved in drug absorption and distribution.

    a. Concentration of drug

    b. Membrane transport

    c. Dosage route

    d. Dosage form

    e. Inherent properties of a drug

    f. Ionization of drug molecules (including pH effects)

    g. Ion trapping of drug

    h. Blood flow

    i. Status of GI tract

    h. Drug interactions

    i. Biological variation

    j. Disease states

    k. Drug reservoirs

    l. Placental transfer

    m. Blood-brain barrier

    n. Volume of distribution

    o. Enterohepatic circulation

    p. Protein Binding

3.3 Be able to explain the following factors involved in drug metabolism and excretion.

    a. Effects of metabolism

    b. Where biotransformation occurs

    c. Enzyme induction

    d. Reactions of metabolism

    e. Age of animal

    f. Species variation

    g. Where drug excretion occurs

    h. Ion trapping of a drug

3.4 Define the following

    a. Latency

    b. Peak effect

    c. Half-life

    d. Loading dose

    e. cumulative dose

    f. Therapeutic index

3.5 Define the following

    a. Adverse reaction

    b. Outright overdose

    c. Relative overdose

    d. Tissue residue

    e. Violative residue

    f. Withdrawal time

    g. Illegal drug

    h. Pesticide

4.0 ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of antimicrobial disinfectants, antiseptics and chemothereputic agents commonly used in veterinary medicine. The principals of antimicrobial therapy and factors that influence the use of each medication in the various species will be discussed.

OBJECTIVES:

4.1 List the factors that influence the actions of disinfectants and antiseptics.

4.2 List the mode of action, bactericidal capabilities, virucidal capabilities sporicidal capabilities, effect in the presence of soaps and organic material of the following classes of antimicrobial agents.

    a. Quaternary ammonium compounds

    b. Alcohols

    c. Iodines

    d. Chlorines

    e. Phenols

    f. Hydrogen peroxide

    g. Chlorhexidine

4.3 Define the following as they relate to antimicrobial therapy.

    a. Efficacy

    b. Spectrum

    c. Potency

    d. Synergism

    e. Antagonism

    f. Additive effect

    g. Resistance

    h. Bacteriostatic

    i. Bacteriocidal

    j. Body defense mechanisms

4.4 List the generic name, spectral activity, cidal verses static properties, dosage route, uses, tissue distribution, excretion route, adverse  reactions for the following antimicrobial classifications or drugs.

    a. Sulfonamides

    b. Penicillins

    c. Cephalosporins

    d. Tetracyclines

    e. Macrolides

    f. Lincosamides

    g. Aminoglycosides

    h. Chloramphenicol

    i. Quinolones

    j. Nitrofurans

    k. Novobiocin

    l. Rifampin

    m. Polymixins

    n. Bacitracin

    o. The imidazoles

    p. Griseofulvin

    q. Amphotericin B

    r. Nystatin

    s. Metronidazole 

5.0 ANTI-PARASITIC DRUGS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of anti-parasitic and insecticidal agents commonly used in veterinary medicine. The principals of anti-parasitic and insecticidal therapy and factors that influence the use of each medication in the various species will be discussed.

OBJECTIVES:

5.1 List the generic name, trade name dosage route, uses, treatment regimes, and adverse reactions for the following anti-parasitic or insecticidal classification or drugs.

    a. Piperazine

    b. Benzimidazole compounds

    c. Pyrantal compounds

    d. Praziquantal

    e. Epsiprantel

    f. Levamisol

    g. Amprolium

    h. Lasalocid

    i. Monensin

    j. Clorsulon

    k. Albendazole

    l. The Avermectins

    m. Milbemycin oxime

    n. Organocarbamates

    o. Thiacetarsamide

    p. Melarsomine

    q. Amitraz

    r. Pyrethrin

    s. Organophosphate

    t. Lufenuron

    u. Imidacloprid

    v. Fipronil

    w. Moxidectin

    x. Imidocarb

    y. Doramectin

6.0 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, CARDIOPULMONARY DRUGS AND DIURETICS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of agents that effect the autonomic nervous system, cardiac, respiratory drugs and diuretics commonly used in veterinary medicine. The drugs used in emergency medicine as well as their application will especially emphasized.

OBJECTIVES:

6.1 Define the following

    a. Reflex arc

    b. sympathetic

    c. parasympathetic

    d. sympathomimetic

    e. sympatholytic

    f. parasympathomimetic

    g. parasympathlytic

    h. cholinergic

    i. adrenergic

    j. Bronchodilator

    k. Broncoconstriction

    l. Vasodilator

    m. Vasoconstriction    

6.2 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, uses, treatment regimes effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following autonomic nervous system drugs. Be able to discuss their application in emergency, cardiac and respiratory situations.

     a. Acetylcholine

     b. Bethanechol

     c. Pilocarpine

     d. Metoclopramide

     e. Cisapride

     f. Neostigmine

     g. Physostigmine

     h. 2-Pam

     i. Atropine

     j. Glycopyrrolate

     k. Aminopentamide

     l. Mydriacyl

     m. Epinephrine

     n. Isoproterenol

     o. Dopamine

     p. Dobutamine

     r. Terbutaline

     s. Albuterol

     t. Phenylpropanolamine

     u. L-deprenyl

     v. Acepromazine

     w. Propanolol

     x. Timilol maleate

     y. Atenolol

 6.3 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following drugs used in cardiopulmonary medicine. Be able to discuss their application in emergency situations.

     a. Digitalis glycosides

     b. Nitroglycerin

     c. Enalapril

     d. Qinidine

     e. Procainamide

     f. Lidocaine

     g. Tocainaide

     h. Diltiazem

     i. Aminophylline

     j. Theophylline

     k. Hydralizine

     l. Isoxuprine

     m. Furosemide

     n. Doxapram

     o. Terbutaline

     p. Albuterol

6.4  List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following diuretics,  Be able to discuss their application in emergency situations.

     a. Hydrochlorthiazide

     b. The xanthines

     c. Acetazolamide

     d. Spironolactone

     e. Furosemide

     f. Mannitol

     g. Water

7.O ANTI-INFLAMMATORIES, ANALGESICS AND ANTIHISTAMINES

INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of anti-inflammatories, analgesics and antihistamines commonly used in veterinary medicine. The use and handling of controlled substances will also be reviewed were applicable. 

OBJECTIVES:

7.1 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    a. Aspirin

    b. Acetaminophen

    c. Ibuprofen

    d. Phenylbutazone

    e. Etodolac

    f. Flunixin Meglumide

    g. Ketoprofen

    h. Carprofen

    i. Dimethyl sulfoxide

    j. Hyluronic acid

    k. Adequan

    l. Glucosamine/chondroitin

    m. Fatty acid supplements

    n. Coxib drugs

7.2 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, dosage form uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following steroid drugs.

    a. Hydrocortisone

    b. Prednisone

    c. Prednisolone

    d. Prednisolone sodium succinate

    e. Methylprednisolone

    f. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate

    g. Methylprednisolone acetate

    h. Triamcinolone acetonide

    i. Dexamethasone

    j. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate

    k. Betamethasone

7.3 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, dosage form uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following analgesic drugs.

    a. Morphine

    b. Oxymorhone

    c. Meperidine

    d. Codeine

    e. Hydrocodone

    f. Apomorphine

    g. Fentanyl

    h. Etorphine

    i. Butorphanol

    j. Pentazocine

    k. Buprenorphine

    l. Paregoric

    m. Diphenoxylate

    o. Naloxone

7.4 List the generic name, trade name, dosage route, dosage form uses, treatment regimes, effects on the body and adverse reactions for the following antihistamines and their related compounds.

    a. Pyrilamine

    b. Tripelennamine

    c. Diphenhydramine

    d. Chlorpheniramine

    e. Hydroxyzine

    f. Trimeprazine

    g. Cimetidine

    h. Ranatidine

    i. Phenylpropanolamine

    j. Cromolyn sodium

    k. Sucralfate

    l. Misoprostol

8.0 MISCELLANEOUS DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS

INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS:

The goal is for the student to develop a proficient working knowledge of the following drugs used in veterinary medicine. The student should be able to list and describe the trade name, generic name, mode of action, dosage form, uses and adverse reactions for each of the drugs. The student must describe the drugs use in emergency medicine if applicable.  

OBJECTIVES:

8.1 Describe the veterinary application of the following anti-convulsant drugs.

    a. Phenytoin

    b. Phenobarbital

    c. Primidone

    d. Diazepam

    e. Methocarbamol

8.2 Describe the veterinary application of the following Anti-cancer drugs. Be able to calculate drug dosages based on body surface area.

    a. Cyclophosphamide

    b. Doxorubicin

    c. Cisplatin

    d. Vincristine

    e. L-Asparginase

    f. Mitotane

    g. Acemannan

8.3 Describe the veterinary application of the following Immunomodulaters.  

    a. Interferon

    b. Immunoregulin

    c. Staphage Lysate

    d. Levamisole

    e. Septi-serum

    f. Cyclosporine

8.4 Describe the veterinary application of the following hormones and their related compounds.

    a. Levothyroxine

    b. Oxytocin

    c. Insulin

    d. Glucatrol

    e. Diazoxide

    f. Estradiol cypionate

    g. Vasopressin

    h. Chlorpropramide

    i. Methoxyprogesterone acetate

    j. Methimazole

    k. Fludrocortisone

    l. Megestrol acetate

    m. Diethylstilbestrol

    o. Winstrol-V

    p. PGF-2-alpha

    q. Mitotane

    r. Deprenyl

    s. Mibolerone

    t. Deca-Durabolin  

8.5 Describe the veterinary application of the following toxin antidotes and gastrointestinal drugs. 

    a. Activated charcoal

    b. Syrup of ipecac

    c. Apomorphine

    d. Hydrogen peroxide

    e. Xylazine

    f. Kaolin-pectin

    g. Milk of Magnesia

    h. Bismuth subsalicylate

    i. Mineral oil

    j. Docusate sodium succinate

    k. Glycerin

    l. Amphojel

    m. Carmilax

    o. Poloxalene

    p. Pancreatic enzymes

    q. Fleet enemas

    r. Atropine

    s. Pralidoxime

    t. Dimercaprol

    u. EDTA

    v. Ethanol 20%

    w. 4-Methylpyrazole

    x. Vitamin K

    y. Calcitonin

    z. Acetylcysteine