- Course Number:
- VT 113
- Course Title:
- Veterinary Microbiology
- Credit Hours:
- Lecture Hours:
- Lecture/Lab Hours:
- Lab Hours:
- Special Fee:
Course DescriptionDevelops the knowledge and skills necessary to perform microbiology functions. Includes learning about the various pathological genus and species of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Focuses on the various laboratory methods used in the identification of bacterial and fungal organisms. Prerequisites: Admission to Veterinary Technology program.
Addendum to Course Description
In this course the student will develop the knowledge and skills necessary to perform the duties required of a veterinary technician in the area of microbiology. This is designed for first year veterinary technology students and is a graduation requirement for the Associates Degree in Applied Sciences in Veterinary Technology. Credits in this course are not transferable to a four year school towards a baccalaureate degree.
Intended Outcomes for the course
Upon successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
- Explain the basic principles of microbiology, the study of microbes, and how microbes are classified.
- Evaluate the requirements necessary to promote the growth and multiplication of bacterial and bacteria-like organisms.
- Describe the mechanisms by which microorganisms cause disease and analyze the normal immunological methods and the chemotherapeutic methods used to combat these mechanisms.
- Identify a variety of types of pathogenic microorganisms and the diseases they produce in the host.
- Perform basic microbiological techniques used in the laboratory setting of a veterinary hospital.
- Identify organisms from unknown samples using a variety of tests.
Course Activities and Design
This course is designed to be a lecture and laboratory course. It is a tree-credit-hour course that meets for four-lecture hours per week and five-lab hours per week for six weeks. Topics covered will be general microbiological principles, taxonomy, pathogenic bacteriology, mycology, and virology, diseases caused, and sterilization methods.
Outcome Assessment Strategies
Grades will be based on the student understanding of the course content as demonstrated by periodic lecture examinations, laboratory exercises, a comprehensive final exam, and by attendance. Also in order to receive a passing grade, the student must have attended a minimum of 80 percent of each of the lecture and laboratory classes.
Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)
This course is designed to be a lecture and laboratory course. It is a tree-credit-hour course that meets for four-lecture hours per week and five-lab hours per week for six weeks.
Topics covered will be general microbiological principles, taxonomy, pathogenic bacteriology, mycology, and virology, diseases caused, and sterilization methods.
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the basic principles of microbiology, the study of microbes, and their classification.
1.1 State the definition of microbiology
1.2 Describe the taxonomic system used in biology to classify organisms.
A. Describe the old system of classifying bacteria vs. the new system, i.e. that Monera are divided into eubacteria and archebacteria.
B. Describe the classification of all types of microorganisms.
1.3 Describe how to study bacteria.
1.4 Describe the relative sizes of the various microorganisms.
1.5 Review the operations of the microscope in relation to the study of bacteriology and mycology.
1.6 Discuss the physical features of bacterial morphology and structure, including the unique features of the bacterial cell wall.
1.7 Discuss the movement of materials and fluids through the cell wall, include the forces which controls these movements.
1.8 Briefly review the cytoplasmic components of the bacterial cell.
2.0 BACTERIAL GROWTH & DIVISION
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the requirements necessary to effect the growth and multiplication of bacterial and bacteria-like organisms.
2.1 Discuss the physical requirements for growth of bacteria.
2.2 Discuss culture media and how they differentially provide specific nutrients necessary to enable bacterial growth and multiplication.
2.3 Discuss the mechanisms in which bacteria grow, divide and thus multiply, with emphasis toward bacterial genetics.
2.4 Describe the conditions that influence both growth of microorganisms.
2.5 Discuss the methods in which microorganisms are killed and the principles and concepts behind the following:
b. Chemical sterilization
c. Physical sterilization, i.e. ionizing radiation, U.V. light, etc.
2.6 Discuss microbial metabolism and photosynthesis.
2.7 Briefly review the concepts of aerobic vs. anaerobic metabolism, fermentation, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production, protein production, and photosynthesis.
2.8. Explain the lactose operon as a model of a moneran gene control system.
2.9 Discuss mutation in microorganism and how that applies to antibiotic resistant organisms. Why is it favorable for the organism?
2.10 Discuss how genetic material is transferred from one organism to the next, specifically how bacteria pass information to each other.
2.11 Explain conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
2.12 Discuss genetic engineering and its medical and agricultural uses.
2.13 Discuss toxin production by bacteria.
3.0 DISEASE, PATHOGENICITY, ANTIMICROBIAL METHODS, IMMUNITY, AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms microorganisms possess to cause disease and the normal immunological methods and the chemotherapeutic methods used to combat these mechanisms.
3.1 Discuss the concepts of pathology and the pathogen, pathogenicity, pathogenesis, etiology, sequelae, infection, disease, virulence parasitism, mutualism, symbiosis, opportunists, and commensalism.
3.2 Discuss the mechanisms by which a microbe invades the host.
3.3 Describe the substances produced by microorganisms that are injurious to the hose, such as toxins (endo- and exo-), hemolysins, etc.).
3.4 Discuss the reasons for the need for bacteria in the healthy animal, such as the normal intestinal flora and ruminal flora that produce volatile fatty acids to be absorbed and utilized for energy production.
3.5 Discuss the direct and indirect links between disease and their cause.
3.6 Define antibiotics, toxins, toxoids, antitoxins,
3.6 Describe the four criteria used to evaluate chemotherapeutic agents.
3.7 Describe the five classes of antibiotics and how each works.
3.8 List the advantages and disadvantages of broad spectrum antibiotics.
3.9 Explain superinfections and how they occur.
3.10 Explain cultures and sensitivities, and the reasons they are done.
3.11 Discuss how microorganisms respond in the presence of chemotherapeutic agents.
3.12 Discuss Koch's Postulate.
3.13 Describe the classification of infectious diseases.
3.14 Differentiate between symptom vs. sign.
3.15 Describe how microorganisms invade the host.
3.16 Describe how microorganisms cause damage to the host.
3.17. Discuss the following concepts of disease:
b. Communicable vs. Non-communicable
r. Primary vs. Secondary infection
3.18 Discuss the following concepts of the transmission or spread of disease:
d. Vehicles of transmission, biological and non-biological.
e. Nosocomial infections
3.19 Discuss what is meant by the severity of the disease
3.20 Discuss the following concepts of immunity:
a. Non-specific defenses
d. Specific defense (immunity)
e. Cellular immunity: white blood cells, mast cells, macrophages, t-cells, dendritic cells
f. Humoral immunity: B-cells and antibody production, thymocytes,
g. Antigen and antigenicity
h. Self vs. Non-self recognition
I. Inflammation and the inflammatory response
k. Fever and role in the immune response
o. Acquired vs. Passive immunity
p. Classes of antibodies and their action
q. Types of T-cells
r. B-cell activation and conditions causing occurrence
s. Natural killer cells
3.21 Discuss the following concepts of diagnostic immunology:
a. Precipitating out antibodies
c. Agglutination reaction
- Flow Cytometry
3.22 Discuss and describe the following types of immunopathology:
a. Four types of hypersensitivity reactions
4.0 MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED DISEASES
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the variety of types of pathogenic microorganisms and the diseases they produce in the host.
4.1 Discuss and describe in detail the characteristics listed below of the following types of microorganisms:
A. Scientific name
B. Taxonomic classification
D. Staining characteristics
E. Colony type
F. Distribution in nature
G. Specific growth requirements by genus and species (if applicable)
H. Biochemical tests used to isolate and identify by genus and species (if applicable).
I. Disease caused by specific genus and species
4.2 Do the same for the following viruses as was done in 4.1:
e. Picornavirus and Calicivirus
4.2 Do the same for the following fungi and yeasts as was done in 4.1:
a. Candida albicans
b. Microsporum canis
c. Trichophyton spp.
d. Coccidioides imitis
5.0 LABORATORY COMPETENCIES
The goal is for the student to develop the knowledge and practical skills necessary to perform as a clinical laboratory technician in the field of microbiology in the laboratory setting of a veterinary hospital.
5.1 The student will perform the following microbiological techniques:
a. Aseptic transfer of bacteria using a loop, a swab, or a pipette.
b. Make a wet mount of bacteria
c. Streak a plate
d. Add bacterial sample to a broth or slant
e. Perform the following stains on a slide:
(1) Simple stain
(2) Gram stain
(3) Capsule stain
(4) Spore stain
(5) negative stain
f. Culture and sensitivity using a variety of samples.
5.2 The student will perform the following specific tests and agars to identify organisms from unknown samples. The student will also perform the tests in 5.1 in order to identify the unknown bacterial sample.
a. Motility test using motility agar
b. Grow in anaerobic jar
c. Blood agar
f. Nitrate reduction
g. Urea hydrolysis
I. Litmus milk
- Dermatophyte Test Media
- Test for fecal coliforms