- Course Number:
- VT 112
- Course Title:
- Clinical Laboratory Procedures
- Credit Hours:
- Lecture Hours:
- Lecture/Lab Hours:
- Lab Hours:
- Special Fee:
Course DescriptionCovers the knowledge and skills necessary to perform various types of tests that are usually done in the clinical laboratory of a veterinary hospital. Includes learning to perform serum chemistries on various types of machines, knowledge of special commercial test procedures, and examination of cytology specimens. Prerequisites: Admission to Veterinary Technology program.
Addendum to Course Description
The student also will get a review and a chance to develop a greater level of proficiency in performing complete blood counts and urinalyses in the laboratory part of this course. This is designed for first year veterinary technology students and is a graduation requirement for the Associates Degree in Applied Sciences in Veterinary Technology. Credits in this course are not transferable to a four year school towards a baccalaureate degree. The recommended text for this course is Laboratory Procedures for Veterinary Technicians, current edition.
Intended Outcomes for the course
Upon completion of this course the student will be able to:
- Describe the factors that influence the safe and effective collection and handling of blood.
- Explain the application of enzymology as it relates to the use of dry chemistry machines.
- Explain the pathophysiology and clinical pathology of the major organ systems, muscles, blood plasma, and hormones.
- Describe the fundamental aspects of cytology and explain how they relate to common veterinary applications.
- Perform a variety of immunological tests and explain their interpretation.
- Perform basic laboratory procedures that are common in veterinary practice.
Course Activities and Design
This course is designed to be a lecture-laboratory course. It is a five-credit-hour course that meets for eighteen -lecture-laboratory hours per week for 6 weeks. Although the course is a lecture-lab course, nine hours per week are devoted to lecture and nine hours per week to lab. The topics this course will include are the complete blood count, urinalysis, clinical chemistries, and special tests performed in-house in veterinary hospitals.
Outcome Assessment Strategies
Grades will be based on the students understanding of the course content as demonstrated by periodic lecture examinations, laboratory proficiency examinations, and one comprehensive final exam, and by attendance. The student must be able to demonstrate proficiency sufficient to be within 10% of the results obtained on a sample evaluated by the instructor and an experienced technician. in order to receive a passing grade. Also in order to receive a passing grade, the student must have attended a minimum of 80 percent of each of the lecture and laboratory classes.
Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY PROCEDURES
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the following as they relate to the collection and handling of blood.
1.1 Discuss laboratory safety procedures.
1.2 Discuss the following basic concepts.
a. Theory of laboratory testing
b. Sample collection
c. Anticoagulant effects
d. Storage and stability of blood
e. Effects of lipemia
f. Effects of hemolysis
g. Effects of icterus
2.0 ENZYMOLOGY AND THE USE OF DRY CHEMISTRY AND ALLIED MACHINES
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of the application of enzymology as it relates to the use of dry chemistry machines.
2.1 Discuss the principles of enzymology.
2.2 Discuss the care and use and troubleshooting of the following dry chemistry machines commonly used in veterinary practice.
a. Vet Test 8008
3.0 EVALUATION OF NORMAL AND ABNORMAL BODY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge ofmthe pathophysiology and clinical pathology of the following systems.
3.1.1 Review renal physiology.
3.1.2 Discuss the pathophysiology of kidney disease.
3.1.3 Discuss the means of evaluating renal function, including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
a. Urine concentration tests
b. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
d. Fractional clearance tests
e. Urine protein/creatinine ratio
3.2.1 Review liver physiology.
3.2.2 Discuss the pathophysiology of liver disease.
3.2.3 Discuss the means of evaluating liver damage and function, including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
a. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
b. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
c. Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP)
d. Gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT)
e. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH)
g. Bile acid assays
h. Plasma ammonia and ammonia tolerance tests.
3.3.1 Discuss the pathophysiology of muscle disease.
3.3.2 Discuss the means of evaluating muscle damage,including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
a. Creatine kinase (CPK)
b. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
c. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
d. Myoglobin detection
3.4.1 Review the physiology of the pancreas.
3.4.2 Discuss the pathophysiology of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease. Discuss gastrointestinal disease and lipid pathophysiology.
3.4.3 Discuss the means of evaluating pancreatic and gastrointestinal
function, including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
d. Trypsin-like immunoreactivity
g. Plasma turbidity test
h. Oral D-xylose test
i. Glucose tolerance test
j. Fecal occult blood
k. Fecal trypsin test
l. Lipid staining
m. Serum cholesterol
n. Serum triglycerides
o. Lipemia refrigeration test
p. Blood glucose
r. Urine glucose
s. Ketone testing
3.5 Electrolyte and acid/base balance
3.5.1 Review the physiology of electrolyte and acid/base balance.
3.5.2 Discuss the pathophysiology of electrolyte and acid/base balance.
3.4.3 Discuss the means of evaluating electrolyte and acid/base balance including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent
to a professional laboratory.
d. Sodium/potassium ratio
e. Anion gap
j. Partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)
k. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2)
l. Bicarbonate (HCO3) and total CO2 (TCO2)
3.6 Plasma proteins
3.6.1 Review the physiology of plasma proteins.
3.6.2 Discuss the pathophysiology plasma proteins.
3.6.3 Discuss the means of evaluating plasma proteins, including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
a. Total protein
d. Albumin/globulin ratio
e. Fibrinogen assay
3.7.1 Review the physiology of Hormones.
3.6.2 Discuss the pathophysiology of the common hormones evaluated in veterinary medicine.
3.6.3 Discuss the means of evaluating hormones, including the use of the following tests. The student must also know which tests may be performed in a clinic and which tests must be sent to a professional laboratory.
c. Free T4
d. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulation test
e. Endogenous TSH
f. Serum insulin
g. Amended insulin to glucose ratio
i. ACTH stimulation test
j. Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test
k. High-dose dexamethasone suppression test
l. Urine cortisol/creatinine ratio
m. Sodium/potassium ratio
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of cytology as it relates to common veterinary applications.
4.1 Discuss the different types of cytological pathology as it relates to the following specimen types.
b. Solid tissues
c. Transtracheal aspirates
d. Synovial fluids
e. Cerebrospinal fluid
4.2 Discuss the following major types of effusions and their component cells.
e. Neoplastic (including criteria for malignancy)
4.3 List the various methods used to obtain cytological specimens.
For each of the following, describe the method for performing the technique.
a. Fine needle aspiration
b. Tissue scraping
c. Touch imprints
d. Exudate smears
4.4 Be able to describe the cellular components of the following masses.
c. Sebaceous hyperplasia
d. Perianal adenoma
e. Keratinic cyst
f. Salivary cyst
g. Squamous cell carcinoma
h. Malignant melanoma
l. Mast cell tumor
m. Transmissible venereal tumor
n. Malignant lymphoma
p. Lymphoid hyperplasia
4.5 Be able to describe the following techniques used for evaluating pathocytological disease conditions of the respiratory system.
a. Nasal swab
b. Nasal flush
c. Nasal biopsy
d. Transtracheal aspiration
4.6 Be able to describe the techniques and pathological specimens obtained from joint fluid.
4.7 Be able to describe the techniques and pathological specimens obtained from cerebrospinal fluid.
5.0 TESTING PROCEDURES FOR SPECIFIC DISEASE CONDITIONS
The goal is for the student to develop a comprehensive knowledge of testing based on immunological principles.
5.1 Discuss general immunologic principles, including types of antibodies, and hypersensitivity reactions.
5.2 Describe the principles of ELISA testing.
5.3 Describe the samples needed, the procedure and interpretation of the following in-house tests.
a. Foal IgG test
b. Canine rheumatoid factor test
c. Felv test
d. Fiv test
e. Canine parvo test
f. Lyme disease test
g. K-99 E.coli antigen test
h. Intradermal skin testing
I. IgG testing for allergies
5.4 Describe the samples needed, the sample preparation and interpretation of the following tests that are commonly sent to a laboratory.
a. Coombs test
b. Antinuclear antibody test
c. Rheumatoid factor test
d. Tissue immunofluorescence (including IFA)
e. ELISA allergy testing
g. Lyme disease
6.0 LABORATORY COMPETANCIES
The goal is for the student to develop competency and proficiency in performing laboratory procedures in veterinary practice.
6.1 Be able to demonstrate competency by performing the following procedures on dog, cat, horse, sheep, cow, goat, bird blood and/or urine.
a. Complete blood count (manually)
b. Complete urinalysis
c. Platelet count by Unopette method
6.2 Be able to demonstrate competency by performing a complete blood count using the IDEXX QBC Vet Autoread.
6.3 Be able to demonstrate competency using the Vet-test 8008 and Reflotron common tests, including BUN, Creatinine, Glucose and common enzymes.
6.4 Be able to demonstrate the knowledge and ability to use a machine that uses the impedence method to count cells.
6.5 Perform the following in house veterinary diagnostic tests.
a. FeLV Cite test
b. FeLV/FiV Cite combo test
c. IgG by refractometry (total protein)
d. Fecal parvo test
6.6 Perform the following cytological exams, including staining and recognizing abnormal cell types.
a. Fine needle aspirate
b. Touch imprint
c. Exudate smears
d. Ear cytology
6.7 Perform the following coagulation tests.
a. Activated clotting time
b. Bleeding time
c. Whole blood coagulation time
d. Fibrinogen assay
6.8 Discuss the procedure and be able to insert an AVID microchip in an animal.