Course Content and Outcome Guide for MLT 271
- Course Number:
- MLT 271
- Course Title:
- Clinical Laboratory Practice I
- Credit Hours:
- Lecture Hours:
- Lecture/Lab Hours:
- Lab Hours:
- Special Fee:
Course DescriptionStudents are assigned to various clinical laboratories to become familiar with their organization and operation. Students also gain insight into how the clinical laboratory practitioner relates to the entire medical team and to the community. Students gain experience in dealing with patients and in performing procedures required of a laboratory technician. Prerequisites: Acceptance into the second year of the MLT Program. Audit available.
Addendum to Course Description
Course is designed to allow students to develop the skills, knowledge, and attitude required to function in a professional manner in the clinical laboratory setting. Includes basic procedures for safety, specimen processing, laboratory information systems and record keeping, use and maintenance of instruments/equipment, and quality assurance within each subject area of blood bank, chemistry, coagulation, hematology, microbiology, urinalysis, and phlebotomy. Campus Laboratory and Student Laboratory exercises are also included in this course.
Intended Outcomes for the course
- Performs routine clinical laboratory tasks in an accurate, timely and professional manner.
- Demonstrates communication skills necessary for working in the health care setting.
- Demonstrates skillful specimen collection, identification and processing.
- Accurately and safely prepares chemicals and reagents.
- Applies appropriate laboratory techniques and methodologies.
- Demonstrates safe and skillful use of instruments and equipment
- Demonstrates knowledge of quality assurance, laboratory math, and computer skills.
- Emphasizes professionalism, including initiative, positive interpersonal skills, teamwork, respect and caring.
Course Activities and Design
Course is presented by informal discussion, handouts, demonstrations, observation, and laboratory procedures. A Student Lab allows students to work in an independent setting before going to the assigned clinical laboratory. In the clinical laboratory all student work is done under the supervision of laboratory personnel. Knowledge, skills and professionalism are emphasized.
Outcome Assessment Strategies
- The students theoretical understanding, technical performance, and demonstration of professional growth will determine grades and competency.
- Assessment is based on verbal and written progress reports in the laboratory, and includes daily performance, professional development, communication skills, attendance, and written and practical exercises/examinations.
- Students will receive an evaluation after each clinical rotation and a performance review from the Education Coordinator at the end of each term.
- As part of the evaluation, students will be asked to maintain a portfolio of clinical laboratory experience, procedures and instrumentation.
Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)
- Review and comply with major policies and expectations of clinical affiliate and the college.
- Consistently display the attitude and traits expected of a clinical laboratory professional.
- Demonstrate competent written, listening and oral, communication skills expected of the clinical laboratory professional.
- Locate and discuss the proper use of the clinical laboratory safety equipment and devices.
- Demonstrate understanding of the OSHA blood borne pathogens standard including the purpose, epidemiology, modes of transmission and protective measures against exposure.
- Discuss actions to be taken in event of fire within the assigned laboratory/hospital.
- Identify basic guidelines for safe use of chemicals including proper labeling, protective measures, location and use of MSDS, and disposal of hazardous chemicals.
- List guidelines for electrical and mechanical safety.
General Laboratory Knowledge, Procedures, and Processes
- Demonstrate proper care and safe use of basic laboratory equipment including the microscope, centrifuge, and glassware.
- Participate in daily maintenance and other basic laboratory responsibilities.
- Demonstrate understanding of lab math and calculations including scientific notation, dilutions, conversion factors, standard curve, and formulas.
- Demonstrate accurate and skillful use of the laboratory information system and other record keeping systems.
- Define and demonstrate knowledge of QA including QC and Westgard rules.
- Describe key terms for workload prioritization and adhere to prioritization policies.
Blood Bank/Transfusion Services
- Define common terminology and discuss basic theory for primary aspects of the blood bank including antigen, antibody, compliment, agglutination, antiglobulin, ABO-Rh and other common systems, antibody identification, transfusion therapy, transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
- Demonstrate knowledge and skill in procedures and protocol for ABO-Rh, IAT, DAT, transfusion therapy and antibody identification.
- Identify common sources of error and discrepancies in testing.
- Discuss basic theory and principles of common assays.
- Demonstrate proficient operation of instruments in performing assays.
- Demonstrate knowledge of instrument maintenance, standardization, QC, and troubleshooting.
- Identify sources of error in measuring common assays.
- Discuss critical values, normal ranges, clinical significance and disease states associated with common assays.
- Compare and contrast automated instruments including major components and principles of operation.
- Discuss theory and principles of hemostasis including synthesis of plasma and tissue factors, extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation, and platelet function.
- Discuss theory and principles of common coagulation tests including PT, APTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer.
- Demonstrate proficient operation of instruments used in coagulation testing and demonstrate understanding of instrument maintenance and QC.
- Discuss normal ranges, critical values, clinical significance and disease states associated with common coagulation tests.
- List abnormal RBC and WBC variations and discuss the clinical significance of each.
- List the normal ranges/values for all common hematology procedures including differentials, automated cell counts, and red cell parameters and indices. Discuss the clinical significance of abnormal values of each.
- Prepare samples for manual cell counts and perform manual cell counts.
- Prepare and stain differential smears, and perform normal and abnormal differentials.
- Demonstrate proficient operation of automated hematology instruments, including understanding of instrument maintenance and QC.
- Use automated instrument to determine cell counts, red cell parameters, and leukocyte distribution.
- Interpret results of automated instruments including histograms and scattergrams.
- Perform other common hematology procedures including sedimentation rate, hematocrit (spun), reticulocyte count, and sickle cell screen.
- Describe common normal and abnormal isolates and discuss disease manifestations of each.
- Describe and perform primary culture set-up from clinical material.
- Discuss principles, rationale, use and interpretation of media to isolate and identify isolates in routine cultures. Demonstrate proficient use of routine media.
- Explain and perform all phases of the Gram stain including smear preparation, stain, evaluation, reading, and interpretation.
- Describe principle, rationale, uses and interpretation of routine biochemical tests for organism identification. Demonstrate proficient use of routine biochemical tests.
- Quantitate, describe and identify colonies growing on routine media. Correlate Gram stain with colonial morphology on culture plates.
- read out plates from genital, urinary, and throat cultures.
- Set-up and interpret the antibiotic susceptibility test.
- Perform other common microbiology tests/procedures
Specimen Collection and Processing
- Identify components of collection systems and demonstrate their appropriate use.
- Discuss the role of the phlebotomist and display professional behavior in dealing with clients, their family, and the public.
- Appropriately and successfully collect blood specimens from venipuncture and skin puncture sites.
- Prepare, process, and distribute specimens in order of priority, identifying any unacceptable specimens.
- Discuss the principle and limitations of each dipstick test for chemical analysis of the urine.
- State the normal ranges/values for pH, specific gravity, and 24 hr volume of the urine. Discuss the clinical significance of abnormal values for each.
- List various cells and formed elements found in the urine and state normal ranges/values for each. Discuss clinical significance of increased numbers of cells and formed elements.
- Perform and interpret macroscopic examination and chemical analysis of the urine.
- Perform and interpret microscopic examination of the urine sediment.