Course Content and Outcome Guide for MLT 222

Course Number:
MLT 222
Course Title:
Clinical Chemistry II
Credit Hours:
Lecture Hours:
Lecture/Lab Hours:
Lab Hours:
Special Fee:

Course Description

Introduces pathophysiology, diagnosis, and monitoring of select human diseases on an organ system basis. Includes: enzymology, acid-base balance, lipid metabolism, liver and cardiac pathophysiology, and protein metabolism. Acceptance into the second year of the MLT Program required. Audit available.

Addendum to Course Description

The course presents a study of clinical enzymology including test methodologies and disease correlation, focusing primarily on interpretation of enzyme data and organ system panels. Principles and applications of blood gas analysis and lipid metabolism will be presented including test methodologies, interpretation of test results, and correlation of test results with various diseases and abnormal conditions.

Intended Outcomes for the course

Upon successful completion students should able to:
1. Use an understanding of normal and abnormal test results for enzymes, acid-base balance, and lipids and their correlation with appropriate pathologic conditions to make appropriate and effective on-the-job professional decisions.
2. Apply appropriate laboratory techniques, methodologies, instruments and equipment in the performance of blood gas analysis, and enzyme and lipid testing to affect quality patient care.
3. Adapt laboratory techniques and procedures in a corrective manner when errors and discrepancies in results are obtained to affect resolution in a professional and timely manner.

Course Activities and Design

The material in this course will be presented in a traditional classroom (Campus program), or distance-learning format (Distance learning program). Both traditional and distance learning sections include required laboratory activities. Traditional classroom instruction consists of lecture, discussion, web based instructional media (tutorials, animations, videos, etc.) and other educationally sound practices. Distance learning sections include similar educational practices and are primarily presented in a web based format. Both campus and distance learning sections require periodic campus based laboratory exercises. In addition, the distance learning section may have hospital based laboratory exercises. A laboratory manual will be provided. The laboratory exercises provide an opportunity for students to employ the testing principles and methodologies discussed and allow for discussion, application and correlation of the concepts presented. The student is expected to perform all laboratory procedures according to the criteria established by the department.

Outcome Assessment Strategies

The instructor will outline the methods used to evaluate student progress and the criteria for assigning a grade at the beginning of the course. Assessment methods may include written and practical examinations and laboratory write-ups. Evaluation of problem solving skills, teamwork, attendance, laboratory performance and communication skills may also be included.

Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

  • Course Themes
    • Theme 1: Enzymology
      • Enzyme structure and function
      • Enzymes and their associated tissues
      • Diseases and conditions detected and monitored by circulating enzymes
      • Utilizing enzymes for analysis of other analytes
      • Laboratory methodologies for enzyme analysis
    • Theme 2: Acid-base Balance
      • Physiologic buffers and buffer systems
      • Acid-base disorders and their causes
      • Compensatory mechanisms and acid-base disorders
      • Correlating diseases and conditions with abnormal results
      • Laboratory procedures for blood gas analysis
    • Theme 3: Cholesterol and Triglycerides
      • Normal and abnormal lipid metabolism
      • Structure and function of lipoproteins
      • Correlation of lipid panel results with disease states and associated risk assessment
      • Laboratory methodologies for lipid analysis
    • Theme 4: Liver Function
      • Etiology and pathophysiology of hepatitis and other liver diseases
      • Liver function panel
    • Theme 5: Cardiac Function
      • Etiology and pathophysiology of atheriosclerosis
      • Laboratory tests associated with myocardial infarction diagnosis and risk assessment of cardiac vascular disease
    • Theme 6: Proteins
      • Protein structure and function
      • Laboratory methods for protein measurement
      • Correlation of various diseases and conditions with protein values


  • Laboratory Skills
    • Use a spectrophotometer to perform chemistry procedures, including
      • Correctly setting up the spectrophotometer
      • Proper handling, cleaning, and storage of the spectrophotometer
      • Correct use of the wavelength selector
      • Proper use of cuvettes
      • Recording data from the spectrophotometer
      • Constructing a standard curve
      • Applying absorbency readings to calculate analyte concentrations
    • Properly prepare reagents, standards, quality control material, and patient specimens for chemistry procedures, including
      • Preparing working standards from stock standard solutions
      • Proper selection of appropriate glassware
      • Proper use of glassware and other laboratory equipment
    • Proper performance of chemistry testing, including
      • Selection of appropriate equipment
      • Specimen preparation (preparing protein-free filtrate)
      • Proper performance of laboratory procedures
      • Correct interpretation of color reactions
      • Recording observations and test results
      • Following written and verbal instructions for laboratory procedures
    • Troubleshooting and problem solving
      • Recognizing errors or discrepancies in results during lab procedures
      • Selecting corrective actions for problem solving


  • Cognitive Skills
    • Cognitive processes, including
      • Formulating a clear, answerable question
      • Predicting expected results
      • Following written protocols and verbal instructions
    • Analysis skills, including
      • Collecting and organizing data in a systematic fashion
      • Presenting data in an appropriate form
      • Assessing the validity of the data (including integrity and significance)
      • Recognizing errors and developing a corrective course of action
      • Drawing appropriate conclusions based on the results
    • Communication skills, including
      • Discussing and presenting lab results or findings in the laboratory
    • Interpersonal and citizenry skills, including
      • Working effectively in teams or groups so that the task, results, and analysis may be shared
      • Effectively managing time and tasks allowing concurrent and/or overlapping tasks to be done simultaneously, by individuals and/or within a group
      • Integrating knowledge and making informed judgments about chemistry test results in the clinical setting


  • Laboratory Safety
    • Laboratory procedures, including
      • Reporting all spills and broken glassware to the instructor and receiving instructions for clean up
      • Minimizing or containing the production of aerosols and describing the hazards associated with aerosols
      • Washing hands prior to and following laboratories and at any time contamination is suspected
      • Using universal precautions with blood and other body fluids and following the requirements of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
      • Disinfecting lab benches and equipment prior to and at the conclusion of each lab session, using an appropriate disinfectant and allowing a suitable contact time
      • Identification and proper disposal of different types of waste
      • Good lab practice, including returning materials to proper locations, proper care and handling of equipment, and keeping the bench top clear of extraneous materials
    • Protective procedures, including
      • Tying long hair back, wearing personal protective equipment (eye protection, coats, gloves, closed shoes), and using such equipment in appropriate situations
      • Always using appropriate pipetting devices and understanding that mouth pipetting is forbidden
      • Never eating or drinking in the laboratory
      • Never applying cosmetics, handling contact lenses, or placing objects (fingers, pencils, etc.) in the mouth or touching the face
    • Emergency procedures, including
      • Locating and properly using emergency equipment (eye wash stations, first aid kits, fire extinguishers, chemical safety showers)
      • Reporting all injuries immediately to the instructor
      • Following proper steps in the event of an emergency