Portland Community College | Portland, Oregon

Fair use permits the reproduction of creative works for criticism, comment, news reporting, scholarship, research and teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use). The four factors of fair use are below.

  1. The purpose and character of the use
    • whether the use is commercial in nature
    • whether the use is for nonprofit educational purposes
  2. The nature of the work
  3. The amount and substantiality of the selection in relation to the whole work
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for the work

Agreements worked out by authors, publishers and users have placed limits on what falls under "fair use" and under what circumstances. PCC faculty, staff and students make a judgment about how they plan to use material (in all formats) before using it. See: Material type and Fair Use checklist

Related websites

Center for Social Media
From American University, School of Communication
Copyright & Fair Use
From Stanford University
Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials
From the University of Texas
U.S. Copyright Office - Fair Use
The right to reproduce or to authorize others to reproduce.